Syllabus | SUBJECT: IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY | Third Year | B.Sc Microbiology

SUBJECT: IMMUNOLOGY AND MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY

S.no

Topic

Domain

Hours

1

History and introduction to immune cells and organs: Contributions of following scientists to the development of field of immunology – Edward Jenner, Karl Landsteiner, Robert Koch, Paul Ehrlich, Elie Metchnikoff,
Concept of Innate and Adaptive immunity;  Structure, Functions and Properties of: Immune Cells – Stem cell, T cell, B cell, NK cell, Macrophage, Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Mast cell, Dendritic cell; and Immune Organs – Bone Marrow, Thymus, Lymph Node, Spleen, GALT, MALT, CALTAntigens and antibodies: Characteristics of an antigen (Foreignness, Molecular size and Heterogeneity); Haptens; Epitopes (T & B cell epitopes); Adjuvants Structure, Types, Functions and Properties of antibodies

Must know

13

Antigenic determinants on antibodies (Isotypic, allotypic, idiotypic); VDJ rearrangements; Monoclonal and
Chimeric antibodies.

Desirable to know

5

Contributions of following scientists to the development of field of immunology- Peter Medawar, MacFarlane Burnet, Neils K Jerne, Rodney Porter and Susumu Tonegawa.
T-dependent and T-independent antigens

Nice to know

2

2

Major histocompatibility complex, complement system, immune response: Organization of MHC locus (Mice & Human); Structure and Functions of MHC I & II molecules; Antigen processing and presentation (Cytosolic and Endocytic pathways) Components of the Complement system; Activation pathways (Classical, Alternative and Lectin pathways); Primary and Secondary Immune Response; Generation of Humoral Immune Response (Plasma and Memory cells); Generation of Cell Mediated Immune Response (Self MHC restriction, T cell activation, Immunological disorders and techniques: Types of Autoimmunity and Hypersensitivity with examples;; Characteristics of tumor antigens. Principles of Precipitation, Agglutination, Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA, Western blotting, Immunofluoresence, Flow cytometry,

Must know

13

Biological consequences of complement activation. Killing Mechanisms by CTL and NK cells, Introduction to tolerance.
Immunodeficiencies – Animal models (Nude and SCID mice), SCID, DiGeorge syndrome, Chediak- Higashi syndrome, Leukocyte adhesion deficiency, CGD

Desirable to know

5

Co- stimulatory signals);
ELISPOT, Immunoelectron microscopy, RIST, RAST, MLR

Nice to know

2

3

Microflora of human body, host pathogen interaction: Skin, throat, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract. Definitions of invasion, pathogen, parasite, pathogenicity, toxigenicity, virulence, carriers and their types, nosocomial infections, opportunistic infections, septicemia, septic shock, transmission and spread of infection.
Sample processing, diagnostic tools, antimicrobial agents: Collection, transport and culturing of clinical samples,

Must know

12

Principles of different diagnostic tests (ELISA, Immunofluorescence, Agglutination based tests, Complement fixation, PCR, DNA probes).

 

Desirable to know

6

Mechanism of action of important chemotherapeutic agents. Principles of drug resistance in bacteria.

Nice to know

2

4

Bacterial and protozoan diseases: Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae, Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae, Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria
gonorrhoeae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum Protozoan: Malaria, Kala-azar, and ToxoplasmosisViral and fungal diseases: Polio, Chicken pox, Herpes, Hepatitis, Rabies, Influenza with brief description of bird and swine flu, Dengue, AIDS, Viral cancers. An overview of emerging viral diseases: Japanese Encephalitis, Ebola, Marburg, SARS, Chikungunya.

Must know

14

Viral and fungal diseases: Different types of mycoses with particular reference to Dermatomycoses and Opportunistic mycoses.

Desirable to know

4

Viral and fungal diseases: Hanta, Nipah, Chandipura

Nice to know

2

5

PRACTICAL

Identification of human blood groups.

To identify pathogenic bacteria (any three of E. coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Bacillus) based on cultural, morphological and biochemicalcharacteristics.

Cultural characteristics on nutrient agar and in nutrient broth, Gram characteristic, motility, presence of endospore and capsule, IMViC, TSI, sugar fermentation, nitrate reduction, urease production, oxidase and catalase tests.

To study composition and use of important differential media for identification of pathogenic bacteria

EMB agar, McConkey agar, TCBS agar and Salmonella-Shigella agar (any two)

To perform antibacterial testing by Kirby-Bauer method

 

Must know

40

To perform immunodiffusion by Ouchterlony method.

To perform DOT ELISA.

To perform immunoelectrophoresis.

To study symptoms of the diseases with the help of photographs – Polio, anthrax, herpes, chicken pox, HPV warts, AIDS (candidiasis, kaposi’s sarcoma), dermatomycoses (ring worms), kala-azar

 

Desirable to know

15

To perform Total Leukocyte Count of the given blood sample.

To perform Differential Leukocyte Count of the given blood sample.

To separate serum from the blood sample (demonstration).

 

 

Nice to know

5

Suggested readings:

  1. Delves P, Martin S, Burton D, Roitt IM. (2006). Roitt’s Essential Immunology. 11th edition Wiley-Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford.
  2. Goldsby RA, Kindt TJ, Osborne BA. (2007). Kuby’s Immunology. 6th edition W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
  3. Ananthanarayan R and Paniker CKJ. (2005). Textbook of Microbiology. 7th edition (edited by Paniker CKJ). University Press Publication.
  4. Brooks GF, Carroll KC, Butel JS and Morse SA. (2007). Jawetz, Melnick and Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology. 24th edition. McGraw Hill Publication.
  5. Goering R, Dockrell H, Zuckerman M and Wakelin D. (2007). Mims’ Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Elsevier
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