SUBJECT: FOOD, DAIRY AND INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY
|1||Food as a substrate and food preservation: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect growth and survival of microbes in foods, natural flora and source of contamination of foods in general Principles, physical methods of food preservation: temperature (low, high, canning, drying), irradiation, hydrostatic pressure,
Microbial spoilage and fermented foods: Principles, Spoilage of vegetables, fruits, meat, eggs, milk and butter, bread, canned Foods. Principles, physical methods of food preservation: temperature (low, high, canning, drying), irradiation, hydrostatic pressure, , chemical methods of food preservation: salt, sugar, organic acids
|Food preservation:high voltage pulse, microwave processing and aseptic packaging, chemical methods of food preservation: salt, sugar, organic acids, SO2, nitrite and nitrates, ethylene oxide, antibiotics and bacteriocins.||Desirable to know||4|
|Microbial spoilage and fermented foods: high voltage pulse, microwave processing and aseptic packaging.
Chemical methods of food preservation: SO2, nitrite and nitrates, ethylene oxide, antibiotics and bacteriocins.
|Nice to know||4|
|2||Food borne diseases: Food intoxications: Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum and mycotoxins; Food infections: Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni||Must know||12|
|Food sanitation and water potability: Treatment and safety of drinking (potable) water, methods to detect potability of water samples: (a) standard qualitative procedure: presumptive test/MPN test, confirmed and completed tests for faecal coliforms||Desirable to know||6|
|water potability: (b) Membrane filter technique and (c) Presence/absence tests||Nice to know||2|
|3||Introduction, fermentation and fermentors: Brief history and developments in industrial microbiology. Solid-state and liquid-state (stationary and submerged) fermentations; Batch, fedbatch and continuous fermentations. Components of a typical bioreactor, types of bioreactors-Laboratory, pilot- scale and production fermenters; constantly stirred tank fermenter, tower fermenter, fixed bed and fluidized bed bioreactors and air-lift fermenter.||Must know||11|
|Overview on industrial fermentation- measurement of parameters, isolation of strains, media and ingredients: pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, foaming and aeration. Primary and secondary screening, strain development, preservation and maintenance of industrial strains.||Desirable to know||7|
|Crude and synthetic media; molasses, corn-steep liquor, sulphite waste liquor, whey and yeast extract.||Nice to know||2|
|4||Downstream processing: Filtration, centrifugation, cell disruption, solvent extraction, precipitation and ultrafiltration, lyophilization, spray drying
Microbial production of industrial products: Citric acid, ethanol, penicillin, enzymes (amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, glucose wine, beer,
|Microbial production of industrial products: glutamic acid, riboflavin, enzymes: isomerase, glucose oxidase),||Desirable to know||6|
|Bioinsecticides (Bt) and Steroid transformations||Nice to know||4|
MBRT of milk samples and their standard plate count.
Isolation of any pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus or Salmonella) from food products.
Isolation of spoilage microorganisms from bread.
Determination of potability and feacal contamination of water samples by presumptive test/MPN test, confirmed and completed tests.
|Alkaline phosphatase test to check the efficiency of pasteurization of milk.
Isolation of spoilage microorganisms from spoiled vegetables/fruits.
|Desirable to know||23|
|Preparation of Yogurt/Dahi.||Nice to know||2|
- Frazier WC and Westhoff DC. (1992). Food Microbiology. 3rd edition. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi, India
- Adams MR and Moss MO. (1995). Food Microbiology. 4th edition, New Age International (P) Limited Publishers, New Delhi, India.
- Banwart JM. (1987). Basic Food Microbiology. 1st edition. CBS Publishers and Distributors, Delhi, India
- Patel AH. (1996). Industrial Microbiology. 1st edition, Macmillan India Limited.
- Stanbury PF, Whitaker A and Hall SJ. (2006). Principles of Fermentation
- Technology. 2nd edition, Elsevier Science Ltd