Syllabus | Physiology | DRIT | First Year

 Physiology

Chapter 1 General Physiology

Cell: morphology, Structure and function of cell organelles Structure of cell membrane Transport across cell membrane Intercellular communication Homeostasis

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Must Know

Chapter 2 Blood

Introduction-composition & function of blood

W.B.C., R.B.C., Platelets formation & functions, Immunity

Plasma: composition, formation & functions, Plasma Proteins: -types & functions, Blood Groups-types, significance, determination.

Hemoglobin, Haemostasis

Lymph-composition, formation, circulation & functions

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Desirable to know

Nice to know

Chapter 3 Cardiovascular system

Conducting system-components, impulse conduction Heart valves Cardiac cycle-definition, phases of cardiac cycle, Cardiac output-definition, normal value, determinants. Stroke volume and its regulation.

Heart rate and its regulation:

Arterial pulse, Blood pressure-definition, normal values, factors affecting blood pressure. Shock-definition, classification, causes and features, Basic idea of ECG, Cardiovascular changes during exercise

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Chapter 4- Respiratory System

Mechanics of respiration Lung volumes and capacities, Pulmonary circulation, transport of respiratory gases, Factors affecting respiration, Regulation of respiration-neural regulation, voluntary control and chemical regulation, Hypoxia, Hypercapnoea, Hypocapnoea, Artificial respiration

Disorders of respiration- dyspnoea, orthopnoea, hyperpnoea, hyperventilation, apnoea, Tachypnoea, Respiratory changes during exercise.

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Chapter 5 Nerve Muscle Physiology

Muscles-classification, structure, properties, Excitation, contraction, coupling, Motor unit, EMG, factors affecting muscle tension, Muscle tone, fatigue, exercise .

Nerve – structure and function of neurons, classification, properties Resting membrane potential & Action potential their ionic basis, All or None phenomenon Neuromuscular transmission Ionic basis of nerve conduction.

Concept of nerve injury & Wallerian degeneration Synapses.

Electrical events in postsynaptic neurons Inhibition & facilitation at synapses .

Chemical transmission of synaptic activity Principal neurotransmitters. Chemical transmission of synaptic activity Principal neurotransmitters.

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Chapter 6 Nervous system

Introduction, central and peripheral nervous system, functions of nervous system. Reflexes-monosynaptic, polysynaptic, superficial, deep &withdrawal reflex Sense organ, receptors, electrical& chemical events in receptors.

Sensory pathways for touch, temperature, pain, proprioception & others.

Control of tone & posture: Integration at spinal, brain stem, cerebellar, basal ganglion levels, along with their functions.

Motor mechanism: motor cortex, motor pathway: the descending tracts -pyramidal & extrapyramidal tracts-origin, course, termination & functions. Upper motor neuron and lower

motor neuron paralysis.

Special senses-eye, ear, nose, mouth

Water excretion, concentration of urine-regulation of Na+, Cl-, K+ excretion

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Chapter 7 Renal System

Physiology of kidney and urine formation Glomerular filtration rate, clearance, Tubular function

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Must Know

 

Chapter 8 Physiology of urinary bladder and urethra

Ureter, bladder, urethra

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Chapter 9 Digestive System

Digestion & absorption of nutrients, Gastrointestinal secretions & their regulation Functions of Liver & Stomach

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Chapter 10 Endocrinology

Physiology of the endocrine glands – Hormones secreted by these glands, their classifications and functions.

Adrenal, Gonads Thymus, Pancreas. Pituitary, Pineal Body, Thyroid, Parathyroid

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Desirable to Know

 

Chapter 11 Male & female reproductive system

Male -Functions of testes, pubertal changes in males, testosterone -action & regulations of secretion.

Female -Functions of ovaries and uterus, pubertal changes, menstrual cycle, estrogens and progestron -action and regulation

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