Syllabus | PHYSIOLOGY | B. Sc. (Nutrition & Dietetics) | First Year

1st Year

PHYSIOLOGY

Theory: 80 hrs.

Practical: 60hrs.

  1. No
Topic Domain Hours
 

 

 Module 1

 

 

Composition and function of blood

  • Red blood cells––Erythropoiesis, stages of differentiation function, count, physiological variations
  • Hemoglobin–structure, functions, concentration,  physiological variation
  • Methods of estimation of Hb
  • White blood cells– Production, function, life span, count, differential count
  • Platelets– Origin, normal count, morphology functions.
  • Plasma Proteins– Production,concentration, types, Albumin,Globulin,Fibrinogen, Prothrombinfunctions
  • Hemostasis– Definition, normal haemostasis, clottingfactors, mechanism of clotting, disorders of clotting factors.
  • Bodyfluid–pH,normal value,regulationandvariation.
  • Blood groups– ABO system, Rh system
  • Bloodgrouping&typing, Blood Transfusion reaction
  • Crossmatching
  • Anticoagulants–Classification, examples anduses
  • Anemia:Classification,effectsofanemia onbody
  • Blood Volume-Normal value, determinationof bloodvolume andregulationofbloodvolume
Must Know

  • The composition of blood
  • Introduction to hemoglobin
  • Introduction to white blood cells
  • Introduction to platelets
  • Introduction to plasma protein
  • Introduction to hemostasis
  • Introduction to anticoagulants
  • Diseases related to blood deficiency

Desirable to know

  • Function of blood
  • Hemoglobin estimation test
  • Blood groups
  • Blood clotting factors
10
 

  

 

 

Module 2

 

 

 

Cardiovascular system

  • Heart –Physiological anatomy, Nerve supply
  • PropertiesofCardiacmuscle
  • Cardiac cycle-systole, diastole
  • Intraventricularpressure curves
  • Cardiac Output–
  • Heart sounds- Normalheart sounds, cause characteristicsandsignification, Heartrate, areasofauscultation.
  • Blood Pressure– Definition,normalvalue,clinicalmeasurement of bloodpressure. Physiological variations,regulationofheartrate,cardiac shock,hypotension,hypertension. Pulse–radial pulse, tripleresponse
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)–signific
Must Know

  • Introduction to heart
  • Physiology & anatomy of heart
  • Cardiac cycle
  • Definition of cardiovascular disease
  • Significance of ECG
  • Definition of blood pressure
  • Management of blood pressure

Desirable to know

  • Functions of heart
  • Normal blood pressure level
8
 Module 3

 

Digestive System

  • Physiological anatomyof Gastrointestinaltract,
  • Functionsofdigestive system
  • Salivaryglands-Structure andfunctions
  • Deglutition–stagesandregulation
  • Stomach– structure andfunctions
  • Gastric secretion–Composition, function, regulation of gastric juice secretion
  • Pancreas –structure,function,composition,regulationofpancreatic juice
  • Liver–functionsofliver
  • Bile secretion,composition,function,regulationofbile secretion
  • Bilirubinmetabolism- types ofbilirubin, Vandenbergreaction
  • Jaundice-types, significance.
  • Intestine –smallintestine andlarge intestine
  • Smallintestine –functions- digestive,absorption, movements.
  • Largeintestine – functions, digestionandabsorptionofCarbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Lipids Defecation
Must Know

  • Introduction of digestive system
  • Physiology and anatomy of GI Tract
  • Introduction to salivary glands
  • Introduction to stomach
  • Upper GI Tract
  • Lower GI Tract

Desirable to know

  • Functions of digestive system
8
 

 Module 4

 

Respiratory  system

  • Functionsof Respiratorysystem
  • PhysiologicalAnatomyofRespiratorysystem
  • Mechanismofnormalandrigorousrespiration
  • Forcesopposingandfavoringexpansionof thelungs
  • Intra pulmonarypleural pressure, surfacetension,recoiltendencyofthe wall.
  • TransportationofRespiratorygases:
  • TransportationofOxygen& Carbon dioxide.
  • Lungvolumesandcapacities
  • Regulationofrespiration,MechanismsofRegulation-nervousand chemicalregulation
  • Hearing BreuerReflexes.
  • AppliedPhysiologyandRespiration: Hypoxia,Cyanosis, Asphyxia,Dyspnea,Dysbarism, ArtificialRespiration, Apnea.
Must Know

  • Introduction of respiratory system
  • Physiology and anatomy of respiratory system
  • Mechanism of respiratory system

Desirable to know

  • Transportation of respiratory gases
  • Diseases of respiratory tract
8
 

 

 

 

Module 5

 

Endocrine System

  • Definition, Classification ofEndocrine glands&theirHormones
  • Thyroidglandhormone– Physiological, Anatomy,Hormone secreted, Physiologicalfunction, regulationofsecretion
  • Disorders–hypoandhypersecretionofhormone
  • Adrenal gland,Adrenal cortexphysiologic anatomy ofadrenal gland
  • Adrenalcortex, cortical hormones–functionsandregulation
  • Adrenalmedulla– Hormones,regulationandsecretion.  FunctionsofAdrenalineandnor adrenaline
  • Pituitaryhormones– Anteriorandposteriorpituitaryhormones,secretion, function
  • Pancreas– Hormonesofpancreas
  • Insulin–secretion,regulation, function andaction
  • Diabetesmellitus–Regulationofbloodglucoselevel
  • Parathyroidgland–function,action, regulation of secretionofparathyroidhormone
  • Calcitonin–functionandaction
  • Calcium Homeostasis
Must Know

  • Introduction of endocrine system
  • Classification of endocrine system
  • Functions of endocrine system
  • Disorder of endocrine system
  • Disease condition related to endocrine system disorder
10
 

 Module 6

 

Special senses

  • Vision– structure ofeye.  Functionofdifferent parts. Structure ofretina
  • Hearing-structure andfunctionof ear,mechanism ofhearing
  • Taste–Tastebudsfunctions. Smell physiology, Receptors
Must Know

  • Introduction to human senses
  • Structure, functions of eyes
  • Structure, functions of ear
  • Hearing mechanism
  • Structure, physiology &functions of tongue
  • Function of taste buds
4
 

 

 

Module 7

Nervous system

  • Functionsof Nervoussystem,Neuron structure,classificationandproperties
  • Neuroglia, Nerve fiber,classification, conduction ofimpulsescontinuousandsalutatory
  • Velocityof impulse transmissionandfactorsaffecting
  • Synapse –structure,types,properties
  • Receptors– Definition,classification, properties
  • Reflexaction–unconditionedpropertiesof reflexaction, Babinski’ssign
  • Spinal cordnervetracts –Ascendingtracts,descendingtracts–pyramidaltracts–Extrapyramidal tracts
  • FunctionsofMedulla,pons,hypothalamic disorders
  • Cerebralcortexlobesandfunctions, Sensorycortex,Motorcortex,Cerebellum functionsofCerebellum
  • Basal ganglia-functions
  • EEG
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF):formation,circulation,properties,compositionandfunctions lumbarpuncture.
  • Autonomic NervousSystem:Sympathetic andparasympatheticdistributionandfunctionsand comparisonoffunctions.
Must Know

  • Introduction to nervous system
  • Classification of nervous system
  • Neuron structure
  • Definition of reflex action
  • Introduction to EEG
  • Introduction to CSF
  • Introduction to human receptors

Desirable to know

  • Function of nervous system
  • Properties of reflex action
  • Functions of medulla, pons and hypothalamic disorder
  • Basal ganglia functions
10
  

Module 8

Excretory System

  • Excretoryorgans
  • Kidneys:Functionsofkidneysstructuralandfunctionalunitnephron,vasarecta,cortical and juxta-medullarynephrons–Comparison
  • Juxta Glomerular Apparatus–Structure andfunction
  • Renalcirculationpeculiarities
  • MechanismofUrine formation: Ultrafiltration criteria forfiltrationGFR, Plasma fraction, EFP,factorseffectingEFR.  DeterminationofGFR selectivereabsorption–sitesof reabsorption, substance reabsorbedmechanismsofreabsorptionGlucose,and urea.
  • HClaminoacidsetc. TMG,Tubularload,renalthreshold%ofreabsorptionofdifferent substances, selective secretion
  • Propertiesandcompositionofnormalurine,urineoutput
  • Counter– Current Mechanisms:Micturition, Innervations ofBladder,Cystourethrogram. Diuretics:Water, Diuretics,osmotic diuretics, artificial kidney,renalfunctiontests–plasma clearance Actionsof ADH,Aldosterone and PTHonkidneys
  • Renalfunctiontests
Must Know

  • Introduction to renal system
  • Introduction to kidneys
  • nephrons
  • renal circulation
  • mechanism of urine formation
  • renal function test

Desirable to know

  • Function of kidney
  • Composition of normal urine
  • Disease related to renal system
10
 Module 9 Reproductive system

  • FunctionofReproductive system,Puberty,male reproductive system. Functionsoftestes, spermatogenesis site,stages,and factorsinfluencingsemen. Endocrine functionsoftestes
  • Androgens–Testosterone structureandfunctions.
  • Femalereproductive system: Ovulation, menstrualcycle
  • Physiological changesduringpregnancy,pregnancytest
  • Lactation:Compositionofmilkfactorscontrollinglactation
Must Know

  • Introduction to reproductive system
  • Function of reproductive system
  • Female reproductive system
  • Male reproductive system
  • Physiological Changes during pregnancy
  • Physiological Changes during lactation

Desirable to know

  • Function of kidney
  • Composition of milk during lactation
  • Disease related to renal system
6
 Module 10 Muscle nervephysiology 

  • Classificationofmuscle,structure ofskeletal muscle, Sarcomere contractile proteins, neuromuscularjunction
  • Transmissionacross, neuromuscularjunction
  • Excitation contractioncoupling
  • Mechanism ofmusclecontraction,muscle tone,fatigue: Rigormortis.
Must Know

  • Classification of muscles
  • Structure of skeletal muscle
  • Mechanism of muscle contraction

Desirable to know

  • Function of protein in muscle formation
3
 

 

Module 11

Skin-structure andfunction

  • Bodytemperaturemeasurement,
  • Physiologicalvariation,
  • Regulationofbody temperature by physicalchemical andnervousmechanisms
  • RoleofHypothalamus,Hypothermiaandfever
Must Know

  • Introduction to skin structure
  • Layers of skin
  • Physiology
  • Regulation of body temperature

Desirable to know

  • Role of hypothalamus, hypothermia and fever
4

PHYSIOLOGY PRACTICALS

 

  1. Haemoglobinometry
  2. White BloodCellcount
  3. RedBloodCellcount
  4. DeterminationofBloodGroups
  5. Leishman’s stainingand DifferentialWBCcount
  6. Determinationofpackedcell Volume
  7. Erythrocyte sedimentationrate [ESR]
  8. CalculationofBloodindices
  9. DeterminationofClottingTime,BleedingTime
  10. Bloodpressurerecording
  11. Auscultationfor Heart Sounds
  12. ArtificialRespiration
  13. Determinationofvital capacity
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