Syllabus | Nutritional Biochemistry | B. Sc. (Nutrition & Dietetics) | First Year

1st Year
Nutritional Biochemistry
Theory – 80 hrs.                                                                                     Practical:-40 hours

S. No

Topic

Domain

Hours

 

 

 

 

 

Module 1

 

Basics of energy metabolism, nutrition & dietetics –

  • Unit of measuring energy
  • calorific value of food
  • BMR & factors affecting it
  •  SDA of food
  • calculation of energy requirement,
  •  balanced diet
  • Nutrition in health & diseases (protein energy malnutrition)
Must Know

  • Definition of energy
  • Unit of energy i.e. calories and joules
  • Energy Balance i.e. positive & negative energy balance
  • Basal Metabolic Rate:-
        • Factors considered while measuring BMR
        • Factors affecting BMR
  • Calculation of energy
  • Definition of Balance diet

Desirable to know

  • Food sources that provide energy
  • Nutrition in health & diseases

Nice to know

  • Energy value of different nutrients
  • Factors considered in planning balance diet

4

 

 

 

 

 

Module 2

 

Chemistry of carbohydrates & their related metabolism –.

  • Introduction
  • Definition

 

  • Classification
  • Biomedical importance

 

  • Brief outline of metabolism: Glycogenesis
  • Glycogenolysis

 

  • Glycolysis,
  • Citric acid cycle & its significance,

 

  • HMP shunt
  • Gluconeogenesis

 

  • regulation of blood glucose level
Must Know

  • Definition of carbohydrate
  • Classification of carbohydrate
  • Definition of glycolysis
  • Reactions of glycolysis
  • Definition of citric acid cycle
  • Reactions of citric acid cycle
  • Pathway of gluconeogenesis
  • Pathway of glycogenolysis
  • Location of HMP Shunt pathway
  • Reaction of HMP Shunt pathway
  • Metaboli and hormonal mechanism of glucose homeostasis

Desirable to know

  • biomedical importance of carbohydrate
  • digestion & absorption of carbohydrate
  • key reactions of gluconeogenesis
  • regulation of glycogen metabolism
  • stages of maintenance of blood glucose level

Nice to know

  • Properties of monosaccharide
  • Metabolism of glucose
  • Glucose transport and insulin secretion
  • Sites of gluconeogenesis
  • Glycogen storage disease

7

 

 

Module 3

Amino acids –

  • Definition
  • classification

 

  • Essential & non essential amino acids
Must Know

  • Definition of amino acids
  • Classification of amino-acids
  • Difference between essential & non essential amino acids

Desirable to know

  • Properties of amino acids
  • Peptide Bonds

Nice to know

  • Biomedical importance

1

 

 

 

 

Module 4

Chemistry of Proteins & their related metabolism –.

  • Introduction,
  • definition,
  • classification,
  • biomedical importance Metabolism:
    • Transformation
    • Decarboxylation
    • Ammonia formation & transport
  • Urea cycle
Must Know

  • Definition of protein
  • Classification of proteins
  • Urea cycle
  • Digestion, absorption process

Desirable to know

  • Structure of protein
  • Functions of protein

Nice to know

  • Biomedical importance
  • Denaturation of proteins

 

6

 

 

 

Module 5

Chemistry of Lipids & their related metabolism –

  • Introduction
  • Definition
  • Classification
  • Biomedical importance
  • Essential fatty acids
  • Identification of fats &oils (saponification no, acid no, iodine no, acetyl no, reichert- miesel no. etc.)
  • Brief outline of metabolism
  • Beta oxidation of fatty acids
  • ketosis
Must Know

  • The chemical structure of lipids
  • The Classifications of fats
  • Oxidation of fatty acids
  • ketosis

Desirable to know

  • Methods of identification of fats
  • Beta oxidation pathway
  • Biochemical abnormalities in diabetic ketoacidosis

Nice to know

  • Biomedical importance
  • Properties of fatty acids
  • Principle of management

8

 

 

 

Module 6

Enzymes

  • Introduction
  • definition
  •  classification
  •  coenzymes
  • isoenzymes
  •  properties
  •  factors affecting enzyme action
  •  enzyme inhibition
  •  diagnostic value of serum enzymes
    • Creatinine kinase
    • Alkaline phosphatase
    • Acid phosphatase
    • LDH,
    • SGOT,
    • SGPT,
    • Amylase,
    •  Lipase,
  • Carbonic anhydrase
Must Know

  • Definition of enzymes
  • Classification of enzymes
  • General properties of enzymes
  • IUBMB system of nomenclature
  • Isoenzymes
  • Diagnostic value of serum enzymes

Desirable to know

  • Chemical nature of enzymes
  • Factors affecting the rate of enzyme catalyzed reaction
  • Properties of isoenzymes

Nice to know

  • Biomedical importance
  • Measurement of enzyme activities
  • Physiological importance of isoenzymes

6

 

 

Module 7

Acid base balance concepts & disorders

  • pH
  • Buffers
  • Acidosis
  • Alkalosis
Must Know

  • Importance of water in human body
  • Components of body fluid
  • Various functions of water

Desirable to know

  • sources
  • The health effects due to water imbalance

Nice to know

  • The normal requirement of water in human body

2

 

 

 

Module 8

Hormones

  • Classification,
  • general mode of action,
  • hormones of
    • Pituitary,
    • Thyroid,
    • Parathyroid,
    • Adrenals,
    • Reproductive Glands,
    • Pancreas,
  • hormonal disorders,
  • Counter regulatory hormones.
Must Know

  • Introduction of hormones
  • Classification of hormones
  • Functions of different hormones
  • Hormonal disorders

Desirable to know

  • Chemical nature of hormones
  • Active form of hormone

Nice to know

  • Hormone receptors
  • Regulation of hormone secretion

6

 

 

Module 9

Vitamins

  • Water & fat soluble vitamins,
  • sources,
  • requirement,
  • deficiency disorders
  • Biochemical functions.
Must Know

  • Introduction of vitamins
  • Classification of vitamins i.e. fats soluble & water soluble vitamins
  • Introduction of fat soluble vitamins
  • Introduction of water soluble vitamins

Desirable to know

  • Food sources
  • Biochemical functions
  • Deficiency disorder

10

 

 

Module 10

Water metabolism-.

  • Distribution of fluids in the body
  • ECF
  • ICF
  • Water metabolism
  • dehydration
Must Know

  • distribution & composition of fluid in human body
  • water metabolism
  • fluid balance
  • disorder of water metabolism

Desirable to know

  • Functions of water
  • Distribution of total body water
  • Regulation of water balance

Nice to know

  • Biomedical importance

3

 

 

 

Module 11

Hyperglycemia & hypoglycemia
Diabetes mellitus –

  • Definition
  • Types
  • Features
  • Gestation diabetes mellitus
  • Glucose tolerance test
  • Glycosurias
  • Hypoglycemia & its causes
Must Know

  • Introduction to disease
  • Types of diabetes mellitus
  • Nutritional management

Desirable to know

  • Diagnostic test
  • Food sources that provide energy

3

Module 12

Liver functions and their assessment – 
Based on –  Carbohydrate metabolism

  • Protein metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Measurements of serum enzyme levels

Bile pigment metabolism: Jaundice – its types and their biochemical findings.

Must Know

  • Introduction to liver function test
  • Liver function test
  • LFT profile

Desirable to know

  • Indications of LFT
  • Indications of ranges

15

Module 13

Renal functions tests –
Various tests, GFR & clearance.
Must Know

  • Indications of renal function test
  • renal function test

Desirable to know

  • Tubular function test
  • Evaluation of filtration barrier

Nice to know             

  • Functions of kidney

4

Module 14

Tumor markers & their clinical applications
Including onco featal antigens,
CEA etc.
Must Know

  • Introduction to tumor markers
  • Types of tumor markers
  • Clinical applications of tumor marker

3

Module 15

General concepts & functions of immunoglobulins Must Know

  • Introduction to immunity
  • Introduction to immune system
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Functions of immunoglobulins

Desirable to know

  • antibodies

2

PRACTICALS

1.         Identification of carbohydrates (Qualitative Tests)
2.         Identification of proteins (Qualitative Tests)
3.         To study general properties of the enzyme Urease & Achromatic time of salivary amylase.
4.         Estimation of glucose in urine by Benedict’s methods
5.         Urine analysis – normal & abnormal constituents of urine.
6.         Blood glucose estimation.

 

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