Subject: Introduction to microbial world and bacteriology
|(A). History of development of Microbiology
Development of microbiology as a discipline, Spontaneous generation vs. biogenesis, development of various microbiological techniques, concept of fermentation,
Classification and characterization
Binomial Nomenclature, Whittaker’s five kingdom and Carl Woese’s three kingdom classification systems and their utility. Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
Morphology of acellular microorganisms (Viruses, Viroids, Prions) and cellular microorganisms (Bacteria, Algae, Fungi and Protozoa)
|Establishment of fields of medical microbiology, immunology and environmental microbiology with special reference to the work of following scientists : Anton von Leeuwenhoek, Joseph Lister, Paul Ehrlich, Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Carl Woese||Desirable to know||5|
|Martinus W. Beijerinck, Sergei N. Winogradsky, Alexander Fleming, Selman A. Waksman, Elie Metchnikoff, Norman Pace,Ananda M. Chakraborty.||Nice to know||3|
|2|| Bacteria and Virus
Brief introduction to eubacteria, archaebacteria (extremophiles).
General characteristics and structure of the following: TMV, T4 and l phage, lytic and lysogenic cycles.
|Algae, fungi and protozoa
General characteristics of algae including occurrence, thallus organization, pigments, flagella, and vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction.
General characteristics of fungi including habitat, distribution, nutritional requirements, fungal cell ultra- structure, thallus organization and aggregation, fungal wall structure and synthesis, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, heterokaryosis, heterothallism and parasexual mechanism.
General characteristics of protozoa – Amoeba, Paramecium and Giardia
|Desirable to know||10|
|History of phycology and mycology||Nice to know||3|
|3||Bacterial cell – organization and structure
Cell size, shape and arrangement, glycocalyx, capsule, flagella, endoflagella, fimbriae and pili. Composition and detailed structure of gram positive and gram-negative cell walls, Archaebacterial cell wall, Gram and acid fast staining mechanisms, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), spheroplasts, protoplasts, and L-forms. Effect of antibiotics and enzymes on the cell wall. Ribosomes, mesosomes, inclusion bodies, nucleoid, chromosome and plasmids and endospore: structure, formation, stages of sporulation.
|Bacterial cell – nutrition, reproduction and sterilization
Nutritional requirements in bacteria and nutritional categories; Culture media: components of media, natural and synthetic media, chemically defined media, complex media, selective, differential, indicator, enriched and enrichment media
Sterilization and Disinfection: Physical methods of microbial control: heat, low temperature, high pressure, filtration, desiccation, osmotic pressure, radiation Chemical methods of microbial control: disinfectants, types and mode of action
|Desirable to know||7|
|Asexual methods of reproduction, logarithmic representation of bacterial populations, phases of growth, calculation of generation time and specific growth rate.||Nice to know||3|
|4||Eubacteria: Morphology, pathogenesis and economic importance of following groups –
Gram negative(15) : Chlamydiae, Spirochetes, Rickettsia, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Neisseria, Enterobactericeae family, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Haemophilus, Helicobacter, Camplylobacter
Gram positive (11) : Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Mycoplasma, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Actinomyces,
|Archeae: General characteristics, phylogenetic overview. Methanogens- Methanobacterium. Thermophiles- Thermococcus, Pyrococcus. Halophiles- Halobacterium, Halococcus
Pure culture isolation: Streaking, serial dilution and plating methods; cultivation,
|Desirable to know||5|
|An overview of scope of Microbiology||Nice to know||2|
Study of the life history of the following scientists and their contributions with the help of their photographs: Anton von Leeuwenhoek, Joseph Lister, Paul Ehrlich, Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Martinus W. Beijerinck, Sergei N. Winogradsky, Alexander Fleming, Selman A. Waksman, Elie Metchnikoff and Ananda M. Chakraborty.
To study the principle and applications of important instruments (biological safety cabinets, autoclave, incubator, BOD incubator, hot air oven) used in the microbiology laboratory.
Introduction to light microscope
Acid fast staining-permanent slide only.
Isolation of pure cultures of bacteria by streaking method.
Microscopy- Theoretical knowledge of Light and Electron microscope.
|Preparation of different media: synthetic media BG-11, Complex media-nutrient agar, McConkey agar, EMB agar.
Estimation of CFU count by spread plate method.
|Desirable to know||10|
|Study of the following algae by preparing temporary mounts: Chlamydomonas and Spirogyra.
Study of the following fungi by preparing temporary mounts: Rhizopus and Aspergillus.
Study of the following protozoans using permanent mounts/photographs: Amoeba, Paramecium and Giardia.
Study of the following techniques through electron / photo micrographs: Fluorescence microscopy, autoradiography, positive staining, negative staining, freeze fracture, freeze etching, shadow casting.(Demo)
Motility by hanging drop method.
|Nice to know||5|
- Willey JM, Sherwood LM, and Woolverton CJ. (2008). Prescott, Harley and Klein’s Microbiology. 7th edition. McGraw Hill Higher Education
- Tortora GJ, Funke BR, and Case CL. (2008). Microbiology: An Introduction. 9th edition. Pearson Education
- Atlas RM. (1997). Principles of Microbiology. 2nd edition. WM.T.Brown Publishers
- Madigan MT, and Martinko JM. (2006). Brock Biology of Micro-organisms. 8th edition. Parker J. Prentice Hall International, Inc.
- Pelczar Jr MJ, Chan ECS, and Krieg NR. (2004). Microbiology. 5th edition Tata McGraw Hill.