Syllabus | Food Microbiology & Biotechnology | M.Sc. Nutrition & Dietetics | Third Semester

Paper III-

Food Microbiology & Biotechnology

Total-40 hrs




Teaching Hours

  • Introduction and scope of food microbiology.
  • Growth of microorganisms, General characteristics of bacteria, fungi, virus, protozoa, and algae.
  • Identification of microorganisms, Morphological characteristics important in food bacteriology, Industrial importance.
  • Intrinsic Factors (Substrate Limitations)-nutrient content, pH and buffering Capacity, redox potential, Eh, antimicrobial barriers and constituents water Activity.
  • Extrinsic Factors (Environmental Limitations)-relative Humidity, temperature,gaseous atmosphere.
Must Know
General, morphological characteristics, growth of microorganisms important for food industry  and various associated factors.


  • Asepsis, cereals grains, pulses and meals, flours, bread, cake and bakery products, pasta, macaroni and tapioca.
Must Know


  • Asepsis, removal of microorganisms, general types of microbial spoilage, spoilage of fruit and vegetable juices.
Must Know


  • General principles underlying meat spoilage, spoilage of different kinds of meats
  • Factors affecting  kind and rate of spoilage, spoilage of special kinds of fish, poultry  and sea foods, defects in  fresh egg
  • Micro flora of raw milk, contamination on the farm and in transit and at the manufacturing level, milk and cream, condensed dry milk products, butter and frozen desserts.
Must Know
Principles of food spoilage, affecting factors and micro flora associated with spoilage of various foods.


  • Some applications of microorganisms-Food product-Alcoholic drinks,Dairy products, Bread,Vinegar, Pickled foods, Mushrooms,Single-cell protein.
  • Products from microorganisms-Enzymes,Amino acids,Antibiotics,Citric acid.
Must Know
Application of various microorganisms in food industry.
Desirable to Know
Various products from microorganisms.


  • Indian fermented foods
  • Historical perspective, mechanism of fermentation,effect on nutritional value
  • Fermentation of vegetables and fruits – lactic acid fermentation.
  • Fermented milk products – yoghurt, butter- milk, cheese.
  • Fermentation of meat and fish.
Must Know
Fermentation,mechanism, effect on nutritive value of food.
Desirable to Know
Fermentation of various food products.


  • Genetically modified foods, Need for GM foods – The food challenges,
  • Potential benefits in agriculture, crop engineered for input and output traits, nutritional improvement, animal foods.
  • Issues of concern, safety of GM foods.
Must Know
Genetically modified food, need and safety concern for human consumption.
Desirable to Know
Potential benefits in agriculture, crop engineered for input and output traits.


Module8 Technology for production of alcoholic beverages
Overview of Fermentation and microorganisms.
Yeasts, Introduction, physiology and Morphology of Yeast. Nutritional Requirements of Yeast.
Lactic Acid Bacteria.
Molds and Spoilage Organisms.
Alcoholic Fermentation.
The Use of Naturally Occurring (‘Wild’) Yeasts in Fermentations.
The Killer Factor.
The use of selected (Cultured) Yeast Strains.
Fermentation Vessels.
The Growth of a Yeast Population.
An overview of Alcoholic Fermentation.
Aroma Compounds and Fermentation.
Must Know
Role of various  Microorganisms in the process of fermentation and the technology for the production of fermented food products. 


Module9 Fermented cereal and legume based products, traditional and yeast
Leavened products.
Biochemical changes during cereal fermentation
Indigenous rice-based fermented foods Idli, Dosa, Dhokla
Traditional wheat-based fermented foods Soysauce ,Kishk, Tarhana
Traditional corn-based fermented foods. Ogi,Kenkey,Pozol.
Traditional sorghum-based fermented foods
Injera, Kisra.
New cereal-based probiotic foods,Yosa
Must Know
Fermentation of foods & various biochemical changes.Desirable to Know
Indigenous cereal based fermented products.


1.Food Microbiology, 1st Edition, M. R. Adams, 1995
2.Food Microbiology, 5th Edition, Frazier, Westhoff, Vanitha N M, 2014
3.Laboratory Methods in Food Microbiology , , 3rd Edition, Harrigan F.W, 2013
4.Fundamentals Food Microbiology, 4e ,Ray,2011

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