Curriculum | PHYSIOLOGY | B. Sc. (Nutrition & Dietetics) | First Year

1st Year
PHYSIOLOGY
Theory : 80 hrs
Practical : 60hrs.

THEORY

S.No. Contents Learning objectives
(At the end of session the student should be able to
Teaching Guidelines
(To cover
Methodology Time
1 Composition and function of blood
  • Describe circulation and the purpose of the vascular system.

 

  • Discuss types of circulation.
  • List and describe the three layers of blood vessels.
  • Identify and describe the structures and functions of the different types of blood vessels.
  • Identify the major components of blood.
  • Describe the major functions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • List the different types of white blood cells and give the function of each.
  • Differentiate between serum and plasma.
  • Define hemostasis and describe the basic coagulation process.
  • Describe how ABO and Rh blood types are determined.

 

Red blood cells––Erythropoiesis, stages of differentiation function, count, physiological variations

Hemoglobin–structure, functions, concentration,  physiological variation

Methods of estimation of Hb

White blood cells– Production, function, life span, count, differential count

Platelets– Origin, normal count, morphology functions.

Plasma Proteins– Production,concentration, types, Albumin,Globulin,Fibrinogen, Prothrombinfunctions
Hemostasis– Definition, normal haemostasis, clotting factors, mechanism of clotting, disorders of clotting factors.

Blood groups– ABO system, Rh system
Bloodgrouping&typing, Blood Transfusion reaction
Crossmatching
Anticoagulants–Classification, examples anduses
Anemia:Classification,effectsofanemia onbody
Blood Volume-Normal value, determinationof bloodvolume andregulationofbloodvolume
Bodyfluid–pH,normal value,regulationandvariation

 

 

Didactic lecture and  Power point presentation, with case study examples

 

 

 

10
2 Cardiovascular system
  • To outline the cardiovascular system;
  • To state the general properties of cardiac muscle;
  • To describe the conducting system of the heart;

 

  • Explain the events of the cardiac cycle including atrial and ventricular systole and diastole, and relate the heart sounds to specific events in the cycle.
  • Define cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume and describe the factors that influence these variables.

 

Heart –Physiological anatomy, Nerve supply
PropertiesofCardiacmuscle,
Cardiac cycle-systole, diastoleIntraventricularpressure curves
Cardiac Output–
Heart sounds- Normalheart sounds, cause characteristicsandsignification, Heartrate, areasofauscultation.
Blood Pressure– Definition,normalvalue,clinicalmeasurement of bloodpressure. Physiological variations,regulationofheartrate,cardiac shock,hypotension,hypertension. Pulse–radial pulse, tripleresponse
Electrocardiogram(ECG)–significance.
8
3 Digestive System
  • Define Digestive System
  • Digestives organs, its function and reaction involved in human digestive system.
  • Describe the structure and functions of the small intestine
  • List the substances secreted by the small intestine and describe the importance of each.
  • Explain the structures and functions of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

 

  • Describe the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments of various diseases and disorders of the digestive system
Physiological anatomyof Gastrointestinaltract,
Functionsofdigestive system
Salivaryglands-Structure andfunctionsDeglutition–stagesandregulation
Stomach– structure andfunctions
Gastric secretion–Composition, function, regulation of gastric juice secretion
Pancreas –structure,function,composition,regulationofpancreatic juice
Liver–functionsofliver
Bile secretion,composition,function,regulationofbile secretion
Bilirubinmetabolism- types ofbilirubin, Vandenbergreaction,
Jaundice-types, significance.
Intestine –smallintestine andlarge intestine
Smallintestine –functions- digestive,absorption, movements.
Largeintestine – functions, digestionandabsorptionofCarbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Lipids Defecation
8
4 Respiratory
system
  • Explain the functions of the respiratory system
  • Explain the difference between internal respiration and external respiration.
  • Explain how the brain controls breathing and how normal breathing patterns can be disrupted.
  • Describe how oxygen is transported from the lungs to body cells.
  • Describe how carbon dioxide is transported from body cells to the lungs.
  • List and explain various respiratory volumes and tell how they are used to diagnose respiratory problems.
  • Describe the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments of various diseases and disorders of the respiratory system.
Functionsof Respiratorysystem,
PhysiologicalAnatomyofRespiratorysystem,
Mechanismofnormalandrigorousrespiration
Forcesopposingandfavoringexpansionof thelungs
Intra pulmonarypleural pressure, surfacetension,recoiltendencyofthe wall.
TransportationofRespiratorygases:
TransportationofOxygen& Carbon dioxide.
Lungvolumesandcapacities
Regulationofrespiration,MechanismsofRegulation-nervousand chemicalregulation
HearingBreuer, Reflexes.
AppliedPhysiologyandRespiration: Hypoxia,Cyanosis, Asphyxia,Dyspnea,Dysbarism, ArtificialRespiration, Apnea.
 

Use of slides,Use of motion pictures, educational films, videotapes
Didactic lecture

8
5 Endocrine System
  • Compare the major chemical classes and general mechanisms of hormones.
  • Describe the location and structure of the pituitary gland, and explain its structural and functional relationships with the hypothalamus.
  • Describe the location and structure of each of the endocrine glands.

 

  • Identify the hormones produced by each of the endocrine glands and specify the functions of those hormones.
  • Describe the functions of the hormones produced by the kidneys, heart, thymus, testes, ovaries and adipose tissue.
  • Explain how hormones interact to produce coordinated physiological responses.
Definition, Classification ofEndocrine glands&theirHormones
Thyroidglandhormone– Physiological, Anatomy,Hormone secreted, Physiologicalfunction, regulationofsecretion
Disorders–hypoandhypersecretionofhormone
Adrenal gland,Adrenal cortexphysiologic anatomy ofadrenal gland,
Adrenalcortex, cortical hormones–functionsandregulation
Adrenalmedulla– Hormones,regulationandsecretion.  FunctionsofAdrenalineandnor adrenaline
Pituitaryhormones– Anteriorandposteriorpituitaryhormones,secretion, function
Pancreas– Hormonesofpancreas
Insulin–secretion,regulation, function andaction
Diabetesmellitus–Regulationofbloodglucoselevel
Parathyroidgland–function,action, regulation of secretionofparathyroidhormone
Calcitonin–functionandaction
Calcium Homeostasis
Didactic lecture and  Power point presentation, with case study examples

 

10
6 Special senses
  • Describe the structures of the Special Senses

 

  • Explain the pathways of sound in the ear and light in the eye

 

  • Identify, describe, and discuss the receptors and neural pathways involved in each of the five special senses
Vision– structure ofeye.  Functionofdifferent parts. Structure ofretina
Hearing-structure andfunctionof ear,mechanism ofhearing
Taste–Tastebudsfunctions. Smell physiology, Receptors.
Didactic lecture and  Power point presentation, with case study examples

 

4
7 Nervous system
  • Describe the two major divisions of the nervous system and their characteristics.
  • Identify the structures/functions of a typical neuron.
  • Describe the location and function of neuroglia.
  • Explain how resting potential is created and maintained.
  • Describe the events in the generation and propagation of an action potential.
  • Define the structure/function of a synapse.
  • List the major types of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.
  • Explain the processing of information in neural tissue.

 

  • Discuss the roles of gray matter and white matter in the spinal cord.
  • Name the major regions of the brain, and describe the locations and functions of each.
  • Name the cranial nerves, relate each pair of cranial nerves to its principal functions, and relate the distribution pattern of spinal nerves to the regions they innervate.
    • Describe the steps in a reflex arc.
    • Identify the principal sensory and motor pathways, and explain how it is possible to distinguish among sensations that originate in different areas of the body.
Functionsof Nervoussystem,Neuron structure,classificationandproperties
Neuroglia, Nerve fiber,classification, conduction ofimpulsescontinuousandsalutatory
Velocityof impulse transmissionandfactorsaffecting
Synapse –structure,types,properties
Receptors– Definition,classification, properties
Reflexaction–unconditionedpropertiesof reflexaction, Babinski’ssign
Spinal cordnervetracts-Ascendingtracts,descendingtracts–pyramidaltracts–Extrapyramidal tracts
FunctionsofMedulla,pons,hypothalamic disorders
Cerebralcortexlobesandfunctions, Sensorycortex,Motorcortex,Cerebellum functionsofCerebellum
Basal ganglia-functions
EEG
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF):formation,circulation,properties,compositionandfunctions lumbarpuncture.
Autonomic NervousSystem:Sympathetic andparasympatheticdistributionandfunctionsand comparisonoffunctions. 

 

Didactic lecture and  Power point presentation, with case study examples

 

10
8 Excretory
System
  • To outline the renal system.
  • To describe the structure and function of nephron, processes of urine formation.
  • To describe briefly the processes of urine formation.

 

  • Describe normal structure and functions of the kidneys
  • Explain pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of glomerulonephritis, nephrosis, nephrosclerosis, and glomerulosclerosis
  • Describe clinical manifestations and complications of urinary tract infections
  • Describe causes of renal tubular injury, manifestations, treatment
Excretoryorgans
Kidneys:Functionsofkidneysstructuralandfunctionalunitnephron,vasarecta,cortical and juxta-medullarynephrons–Comparison,
Juxta Glomerular Apparatus–Structure andfunction
Renalcirculationpeculiarities
MechanismofUrine formation:Ultrafiltrationcriteria forfiltrationGFR, Plasma fraction, EFP,factorseffectingEFR.  DeterminationofGFR selectivereabsorption–sitesof reabsorption, substance reabsorbedmechanismsofreabsorptionGlucose,and urea.
H+Claminoacidsetc. TMG,Tubularload,renalthreshold%ofreabsorptionofdifferent substances, selective secretion
Propertiesandcompositionofnormalurine,urineoutput
Counter– Current Mechanisms:Micturition,InnervationofBladder,Cystourethrogram. Diuretics:Water, Diuretics,osmotic diuretics, artificial kidney,renalfunctiontests–plasma clearance Actionsof ADH,Aldosterone and PTHonkidneys
Renalfunctiontests
Didactic lecture and  Power point presentation, with case study examples

 

10
9 Reproductive
system
Define terms common to the discussion of patients with disorders in repro system (RS)
Describe the normal structure and physiology of RS
Describe disorders of male and female RS  in early and late life
FunctionofReproductive system,Puberty,male reproductive system. Functionsoftestes, spermatogenesis site,stages,and factorsinfluencingsemen. Endocrine functionsoftestes
Androgens–Testosterone structureandfunctions.
Femalereproductive system: Ovulation, menstrualcycle
Physiological changesduringpregnancy,pregnancytest
Lactation:Compositionofmilkfactorscontrollinglactation
6
10 Muscle nervephysiology To provide knowledge and understanding musclenervephysiology

  • Able to explain the basis and functions of  muscle nervephysiology
Classificationofmuscle,structure ofskeletal muscle, Sarcomere contractile proteins, neuromuscularjunction
Transmissionacross, neuromuscularjunction
Excitation contractioncoupling
Mechanism ofmusclecontraction,muscle tone,fatigue: Rigormortis
Didactic lecture and  Power point presentation, with case study examples

 

3
11 Skin-structure andfunction
  • Define body temperature
  • Identify sites of measuring body temperature.
  • Explain in simple terms the various regulating factors of body temperature.
Bodytemperaturemeasurement,
Physiologicalvariation,
Regulationofbody temperature by physicalchemical andnervousmechanisms
RoleofHypothalamus,Hypothermiaandfever
 

Didactic lecture and  Power point presentation, with case study examples

4

PHYSIOLOGY PRACTICALS

  1. Haemoglobinometry
  2. White Blood Cell count
  3. Red Blood Cell count
  4. Determination of Blood Groups
  5. Leishman’s staining and Differential WBC count
  6. Determination of packed cell Volume
  7. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]
  8. Calculation of Blood indices
  9. Determination of Clotting Time, Bleeding Time
  10. Blood pressure recording
  11. Auscultation for Heart Sounds
  12. Artificial Respiration
  13. Determination of vital capacity

 

 

 

 

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