Curriculum | Nutritional Biochemistry | B. Sc. (Nutrition & Dietetics) | First Year

BND 1st Year
Nutritional Biochemistry
Theory – 80 hrs.
Practical: – 40 hours

S. No

Contents

Learning objectives

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Time

1 Basics of energy metabolism, nutrition & dietetics – Define the term energy
Describe the unit of energy
Enumerate the term BMR and explain the factors affecting BMR
Understand and explain the methods applied to calculate the energy requirement of different categories
To cover the topic-

  • Unit of measuring energy
  •  calorific value of food,
  • BMR & factors affecting it,
  •  SDA of food,
  • calculation of energy requirement,
  •  balanced diet,
  • Nutrition in health & diseases (protein energy malnutrition).
 

Student seminar
With Power point presentation followed by discussion

4

2 Chemistry of carbohydrates & their related metabolism –. Identify and explain the major monosaccharide’s, disaccharides, and polysaccharides found in the human body and diet
Describe the overall purpose of glycolysis, its reactants and products, its cellular localization, and its tissue distribution
Describe the overall purpose of gluconeogenesis, its reactants and products, its cellular localization, and its tissue distribution
To cover the topic-

  • Introduction
  • Definition
  • Classification
  • Biomedical importance
  • Brief outline of metabolism: Glycogenesis
  • Glycogenolysis
  • Glycolysis,
  • Citric acid cycle & its significance,
  • HMP shunt
  • Gluconeogenesis
  •  regulation of blood glucose level

Didactic method with Power point presentation

7

3 Amino acids – Describe amino acid structure and properties.
Understand and write the classification of amino acids
Define peptide bond formation in amino acid.
To cover the topic-

  • Definition,
  • classification,
  • Essential & non essential amino acids.

Video presentation/ Didactic

1

4 Chemistry of Proteins & their related metabolism –. Identify and explain the major classification of protein
Describe how the body digests proteins
Define various aspects of protein metabolism, its transport, and cellular metabolism, regulation at substrate, enzyme, hormonal & organ level and associated disorders.
Explain how the urea cycle prevents toxic concentrations of nitrogen
To cover the topic-

  • Introduction,
  • definition,
  • classification,
  • biomedical importance Metabolism:
    • Transformation
    • Decarboxylation
    • Ammonia formation & transport
  • Urea cycle
 

Didactic method with
Power point presentation exercise followed by discussion

 

6

5 Chemistry of Lipids & their related metabolism – Differentiate between the different types and classifications of fatty acid obtained from our diet
Describe the process digestion and absorption of fatty acid and triglycerides, as well as the medical ramification of lipid malabsorption
Distinguish between the four major lipoprotein complexes (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL and HDL)
Describe approaches to Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) that can aid in reducing the risk of CHD
To cover the topic–

  • Introduction,
  • definition, classification,
  • biomedical importance,
  • essential fatty acids,
  • Identification of fats & oils (saponification no, acid no, iodine no, acetyl no, reichert- miesel no. etc.)
  • Brief out line of metabolism :
  • Beta oxidation of fatty acids
  • Ketosis
  • Cholesterol & it’s clinical significance
  • Lipoproteins in the blood composition & their functions( in brief)
  • Atherosclerosis                                                                                                          4-5
 

Didactic method followed by student interaction session

8

6 Enzymes Describe how enzymes function as biological catalysts and name & classify them
Describe the 4 characteristics of enzymes
Describe the effect of temperature, pH, concentration of enzyme and concentration of substrate on enzyme activities
Understand and explain reversible and irreversible inhibition
Understand and learn different diagnostic values of serum enzymes
To cover the topic-

  • Introduction,
  • definition,
  •  classification,
  •  coenzymes,
  • isoenzymes,
  •  properties,
  •  factors affecting enzyme action,
  •  enzyme inhibition,
  •  diagnostic value of serum enzymes
    • Creatinine kinase,
    • Alkaline phosphatase,
    • Acid phosphatase,
    • LDH,
    • SGOT,
    • SGPT,
    • Amylase,
    •  Lipase,
    • Carbonic anhydrase
 

Teachers seminar, Tutorials

6

7 Acid base balance concepts & disorders – Indicate whether the pH level indicates acidosis or alkalosis
List major sources of acids in the body
Identify the major chemical buffer systems in the body
Identify the cause of the pH imbalance as either respiratory or metabolic
Distinguish between acidosis and alkalosis resulting from respiratory and metabolic factors
To cover the topic-

  • pH
  • Buffers
  • Acidosis
  • Alkalosis

Student seminar by
Power point presentation

2

8 Hormones Understand and describe the classification of hormones

 

To cover the topic-

  • Classification,
  • general mode of action,
  • hormones of
    • Pituitary,
    • Thyroid,
    • Parathyroid,
    • Adrenals,
    • Reproductive Glands,
    • Pancreas,
  • hormonal disorders,
  • Counter regulatory hormones.
 

Power point presentations/ Student Seminars/
Video  presentation

6

9 Vitamins – understand the nutrient requirements, recommended dietary allowances and biochemical functions of vitamins in humans
To acquire a fundamental background of the deficiency disorders related to the deficiency of water soluble and fat soluble vitamins
To cover the topic-

  • Water & fat soluble vitamins,
  • sources,
  • requirement,
  • deficiency disorders
  • Biochemical functions.
 

Student seminars followed by group discussion and short type questions

10

10 Water metabolism-. learn the distribution of water and electrolytes in the body and their exchanges
learn the mechanism of normal water and electrolyte balance in health
Study the regulatory mechanisms by which the water and electrolytes balance is maintained
Understand and explain the abnormalities of water and electrolyte metabolism
  • Distribution of fluids in the body
  • ECF
  • ICF
  • Water metabolis
  • dehydration
 

3

11 Hyperglycemia & hypoglycemia Understand and explain the term diabetes mellitus, its type, clinical symptoms and their methods of determination.
Enumerate the term associated with diabetes mellitus and health effects of hypoglycemia.
Diabetes mellitus –

  • Definition
  • Types
  • Features
  • Gestation diabetes mellitus
  • Glucose tolerance test
  • Glycosurias
  • Hypoglycemia & its causes
Didactic lecture by using slides and discuss case studies with examples

3

12 Liver functions and their assessment –  To learn and understand various functions of liver
Learn the classification of various liver function test based on different functions of the liver
Classify jaundice, its type and learn the liver function test associated with it
Based on –  Carbohydrate metabolism

  • Protein metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Measurements of serum enzyme levels
  • Bile pigment metabolism: Jaundice – its types and their biochemical findings.
 Didactic method

15

13 Renal functions tests – To understand and explain the physiological aspects of kidney.
Classify the various function test based on Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
Various tests, GFR & clearance. Teachers seminar followed by exercise

4

14 Tumor markers & their clinical applications understand the ideal characteristics of a tumor marker
Understand and enumerate the role of tumor markers for diagnosis and management of patients with cancer.
Understand the role of tumor markers for therapeutic selection
Including oncofeatal antigens,
CEA etc.
Didactic method by power point presentation

3

15 General concepts & functions of immunoglobulins Define immunoglobulins
Classify immunoglobulins, WHO classification
Learn and explain the important properties of each class of immunoglobulins
Study and enumerate the functions of each class of immunoglobulins
  Didactic method by power point presentation

2

             
                PRACTICALS
 
1.         Identification of carbohydrates (Qualitative Tests)
2.         Identification of proteins (Qualitative Tests)
3.         To study general properties of the enzyme Urease & Achromatic time of salivary amylase.
4.         Estimation of glucose in urine by Benedict’s methods
5.         Urine analysis – normal & abnormal constituents of urine.
6.         Blood glucose estimation.

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