Curriculum | FOOD MICROBIOLOGY | B. Sc. (Nutrition & Dietetics) | Second Year

2nd Year

Theory : 60 hrs.                                                                             

Practical : 60 hrs.





Learning objectives
(At the end of session the student should be able to)

Teaching Guidelines
(To cover)





1. Introduction and scope  of food microbiology Understand basic concepts of food microbiology and its relevance to everyday life. -Micro-organisms and Food

  • food Spoilage/preservation
  • food Safety
  • fermentation

-Microbiological Quality Assurance
-General characteristics of bacteria, fungi, virus, protozoa, and algae.
-Identification of microorganisms
-Morphological characteristics important in food bacteriology
-Industrial importance

Didactic lecture through Power point presentation


2. Growth of microorganisms Able to know how intrinsic and extrinsic  factors affect the growth and survival of microorganisms in foods -Intrinsic Factors (Substrate Limitations)

  • nutrient content
  • pH and buffering Capacity
  • redox potential, Eh
  • antimicrobial barriers and
  • constituents
  • water Activity-

-Extrinsic Factors (Environmental Limitations)

  • relative Humidity
  • temperature
  • gaseous atmosphere

Didactic lecture with  Power point presentation, health claims  related exercises


3. Microbiology of deficient food
a)Cereal and cereal products
(b) Sugar and sugar products.
(c) Vegetables and fruits
(d) Meat and meat products.
(e) Fish, egg and poultry,
(f) Milk and milk products
(g) Canned foods.
Know the spoilage. contamination sources, types, effect on the following
  • Asepsis, cereals grains and meals, flours, bread, cake and bakery products, pasta, macaroni and tapioca.
  • Sucrose, maple sap and sirup, honey, candy.
  • Asepsis, removal of microorganisms, general types of microbial spoilage, spoilage of fruit and vegetable juices.
  • General principles underlying meat spoilage, spoilage of different kinds of meats
  • Factors affecting  kind and rate of spoilage, spoilage of special kinds of fish, poultry  and sea foods, defects in  fresh egg
  • Micro flora of raw milk, contamination on the farm and in transit and at the manufacturing level, milk and cream, condensed dry milk products, butter and frozen desserts.
  • Causes of spoilage, appearance of unopened container, types of biological spoilage of canned foods.

Didactic lecture with Power point presentation and Exercises followed with examples


4. Environmental microbiology -effect of environment over the health (a) Water and water borne diseases.
(b) Air and air borne diseases.
(c) Soil and soil borne diseases.
(d) Sewage and diseases.

Didactic lecture, Power Point presentation


5. Waste product handling : –
(a) Planning for waste disposal.
(b) Solid wastes and liquid wastes
Develop an understanding of waste product handling. Waste treatment and disposal
-Biological oxygen demand (BOD),
-Preliminary treatments,
-Chemical treatment,
-Biological treatment and disposal
-Types of food wastes

Through Power point presentation and exercises followed with discussion


6. Microbial intoxication and infections: Impact of foods habits on planning of nutrition chart Sources of contamination of food, myotoxins, toxin production and physiological action, sources of infection of food by pathogenic organisms, symptoms and method of control.

Seminar on different types of diets/ Tutorials


7. Beneficial effect of organism Know the  association of microorganisms and food Some applications of microorganisms-Food products

  • Alcoholic drinks
  • Dairy products
  • Bread
  • Vinegar
  • Pickled foods
  • Mushrooms
  • Single-cell protein

Products from microorganisms

  • Enzymes
  • Amino acids
  • Antibiotics
  • Citric acid

Seminar and Group discussion on nutritional myths


8. Relevance of microbial standards for food safety. Aware about the role of important organizations in control, regulation and inspection of food.
  • Food Agricultural Organization (FAO),
  • World Health Organization (WHO),
  • The International Children’s Emergency  Fund (UNICEF)
  • Codex Alimentarius
  • The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods(ICMSF)
  • The Food and Drug Administration(FDA)
  • United States Department of Agriculture(USDA)


Seminar, face to face interactions and group discussion




1. Study of equipments in a microbiology lab.
2. Preparation of laboratory media and special media, cultivation of bacteria, yeasts and moulds.
3. Staining of bacteria: gram-staining.
4. Cultivation and identifications of important molds and yeast in food items.
5. Demonstration of available rapid methods and diagnostic kits used in identification of microorganisms or their products.
6.Visit (at least one) to food processing units or any other organization dealing with advanced methods in food microbiology.



1. TB Food Microbiology, 1st Edition, M. R. Adams 1995
2. TB Food Microbiology, 5th Edition Frazier, Westhoff, Vanitha N M 2014
3. RB Laboratory Methods in Food Microbiology , , 3rd Edition Harrigan F.W 2013
4. TB Fundamentals Food Microbiology, 4e  Ray 2011
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