Curriculum | Diploma Radio-Imaging Technology | First Year

DRIT –1

Paper-1

Paper Code-0502101

ANATOMY

Topic Learning outcomes(At the end of the training program student should be able to) Teaching Guidelines Teaching Methods Hrs
General Anatomy: Demonstrate surface anatomy, MSK, Vascular and cardiopulmonary system. Introduction to Anatomy, terms and terminology. Regions of Body, Cavities and systems. Surface anatomy – musculo-skeletal, vascular, cardiopulmonary system General Embryology. Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials

8

Applied anatomy
& Joints
Enumerate and distinguish all types of bones, joints and connective tissue Musculoskeletal system:
Connective tissue & its modification, tendons, membranes, special connective tissue.
Bone structure, blood supply, growth, ossification, and classification. Muscle classification, structure and functional aspect.
Joints classification, structures of joints, movements, range, limiting factors, stability, blood supply
Nerve supply, dislocations and applied anatomy.
Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials

8

Upper extremity Enumerate bones of upper limb, their joints and the muscles of upper limb Bony architecture
Joints – structure, range of movement
Muscles – origin, insertion, actions, nerve supply
Major nerves – course, branches and implications of nerve injuries Development of limb bones, muscles and anomalies
Radiographic identification of bone and joints Applied anatomy
Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials

4

Lower Extremity Demonstrate bones of lower limb, their joints and the muscles of lower limb Bony architecture
Joints – structure, range of movement
Muscles – origin, insertion, actions, nerve supply
Major nerves – course, branches and implications of nerve injuries Development of limb bones, muscles and anomalies
Dedicated lectures
Demonstration
Seminars
Group
Tutorials
            6
Spine and thorax Enumerate all vertebrae or whole spine Back muscles -Superficial layer, Deep muscles of back, their origin, insertion, action andnerve supply.
Vertebral column – Structure & Development, Structure & Joints of vertebra. Thoracic cage
Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Seminars
Group discussions
Tutorials

6

Head and neck: Cranium Enumerate main muscles of head and neck Facial Muscles – origin, insertion, actions, nerve supply Temporal mandibular Joints – structure, types of movement Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Tutorials

4

Nervous system: Enumerate the function of brain, Nervous system, motor system, blood supply of brain, anatomy of brain, cranial nerves, CSF formation and about spinal cord. Classification of nervous system
Nerve – structure, classification, microscopy with examples. Neurons, classification with examples. Simple reflex arc.
Parts of a typical spinal nerve/Dermatome:Central nervous system – disposition, parts and functions Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Midbrain & brain stem Blood supply & anatomy of brain.
Spinal cord-anatomy, blood supply, nerve pathways Pyramidal, extra pyramidal system,Thalamus, hypothalamus, Structure and features ofmeninges Ventricles of brain, CSF circulation Development of nervous system & defects
Cranial nerves – (course, distribution, functions and palsy) Sympathetic nervous system, its parts and components
Parasympathetic nervous system Applied anatomy
Dedicated lectures

Seminars

Group discussions

Tutorials

8

Sensory system Enumerate auditory system Structure and function of Visual system, Auditory system, Gustatory system, Olfactory system, Somatic sensory system Dedicated lectures

4

Cardiovascular system Demonstrate heart, chambers, internal and external features of heart. Circulatory system – major arteries and veins of the body, structure of blood vessels
Heart structure, positions, chambers, valves, internal & external features Blood supply to heart
Conductive system of heart
Dedicated lectures
Group discussions
Tutorials

2

Lymphatic system: Enumerate function of lymphatic circulation Circulation, structure & functions Lymph nodes  

2

Respiratory system Demonstrate pleural cavity, lungs anatomy and great vessels, opening of diaphragm Structure of upper and lower respiratory tract Thorax:
Pleural cavities & pleura Lungs and respiratory tree Heart and great vessels Diaphragm
Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials

6

Digestive system Enumerate blood supply of abdominal organs Parts of digestive system
Abdominal cavity – divisions Muscles of abdominal wall, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen, Alimentary canal Gall bladder Intestine (small & large)
Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials

6

Urinary system Demonstrate anatomy of urinary system, location of kidney. Pelvic floor, innervations Kidney, Ureter, bladder, urethra Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials

6

Genital system – male and female  Enumerate blood vessels of reproductive system Reproductive system of male, Reproductive system of female Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Tutorials

4

Endocrine system Enumerate hormone secretion of glands and blood supply Pituitary gland, Thyroid, Parathyroid Dedicated lectures
Group discussions
Tutorials

2

 

Paper Code: 0502101-P
ANATOMY PRACTICAL

  1. Identification and description of all anatomical structures.
  2. Demonstration of dissected parts (upper extremity, lower extremity, thoracic & abdominal viscera, face and brain).
  3. Demonstration of skeleton-articulated and disarticulated.
  4. Surface anatomy: Surface land mark-bony, muscular and ligamentous. Surface anatomy of major nerves, arteries of the limbs.

 

DRIT –1

Paper-2

Paper Code-0502102

PHYSIOLOGY 

Topic Learning outcomes(At the end of the training program student should be able to) Teaching Guideline Teaching Methods Hrs
General Physiology Enumerate cell physiology and transportation of cell membrane Cell: morphology, Structure and function of cell organelles Structure of cell membrane Transport across cell membrane Intercellular communication Homeostasis Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Seminars
Group discussions
Tutorials
8
Blood Explain composition of blood, blood group types. Introduction-composition & function of blood
W.B.C., R.B.C., Platelets formation & functions, Immunity
Plasma: composition, formation & functions, Plasma Proteins: -types & functions, Blood Groups-types, significance, determination.
Hemoglobin
Haemostasis
Lymph-composition, formation, circulation &functions
Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Seminars
Group discussions
Tutorials
8
Cardiovascular system Enumerate cardiovascular physiology, function, cardiac cycle, Blood pressure, ECG, Shock definition. Conducting system-components, impulse conduction Heart valves Cardiac cycle-definition, phases of cardiac cycle, Cardiac output-definition, normal value, determinants. Stroke volume and its regulation.
Heart rate and its regulation:
Arterial pulse, Blood pressure-definition, normal values, factors affecting blood pressure. Shock-definition, classification, causes and features, Basic idea of ECG, Cardiovascular changes during exercise
Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Seminars
Group discussions
Tutorials
8
Respiratory System Explain respiratory system, pulmonary circulation and related pathology. Mechanics of respiration Lung volumes and capacities, Pulmonary circulation, transport of respiratory gases, Factors affecting respiration, Regulation of respiration-neural regulation, voluntary control and chemical regulation, Hypoxia, Hypercapnoea, Hypocapnoea, Artificial respiration
Disorders of respiration- dyspnoea, orthopnoea, hyperpnoea, hyperventilation, apnoea, Tachypnoea, Respiratory changes during exercise.
Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Seminars
Tutorials
8
Nerve Muscle Physiology Classify muscles and should know the functioning of motor-neuron junction.

Explain basic knowledge of EMG.

 

Muscles-classification, structure, properties, Excitation, contraction, coupling, Motor unit, EMG, factors affecting muscle tension, Muscle tone, fatigue, exercise .
Nerve – structure and function of neurons, classification, properties Resting membrane potential & Action potential their ionic basis, All or None phenomenon Neuromuscular transmission Ionic basis of nerve conduction.
Concept of nerve injury &Wallerian degeneration Synapses.
Electrical events in postsynaptic neurons Inhibition & facilitation at synapses .
Chemical transmission of synaptic activity Principal neurotransmitters. Chemical transmission of synaptic activity Principal neurotransmitters.

 

Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Seminars
Tutorials
8
Nervous system Enumerate reflexes & basic functioning sense organs.
Should be able to know motor mechanism.
Introduction, central and peripheral nervous system, functions of nervous system. Reflexes-monosynaptic, polysynaptic, superficial, deep &withdrawal reflex Sense organ, receptors, electrical& chemical events in receptors.
Sensory pathways for touch, temperature, pain, proprioception & others.
Control of tone & posture: Integration at spinal, brain stem, cerebellar, basal ganglion levels, along with their functions.
Motor mechanism: motor cortex, motor pathway: the descending tracts -pyramidal & extrapyramidal tracts-origin, course, termination & functions. Upper motor neuron and lower
motor neuron paralysis.
Special senses-eye, ear, nose, mouth
Water excretion, concentration of urine-regulation of Na+, Cl-, K+ excretion
Dedicated lectures
Tutorials
Powerpoint presentation
8
Renal System Enumerate Physiology of kidney Physiology of kidney and urine formation Glomerular filtration rate, clearance, Tubular function Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Tutorials
6
Physiology of urinary bladder and urethra Explain  Physiology of lower Urinary tract Ureter, bladder, urethra Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
6
Digestive System Enumerate Physiology of GI tract Digestion & absorption of nutrients, Gastrointestinal secretions & their regulation Functions of Liver & Stomach Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
6
Endocrinology Label Physiology of the endocrine glands Physiology of the endocrine glands – , Hormones secreted by these glands, their classifications and functions.
Adrenal, Gonads Thymus, Pancreas. Pituitary, Pineal Body, Thyroid, Parathyroid
Dedicated lectures
Powerpoint Presentations
6
Male & female reproductive system Enumerate Physiology of reproductive system Male -Functions of testes, pubertal changes in males, testosterone -action & regulations of secretion.
Female -Functions of ovaries and uterus, pubertal changes, menstrual cycle, estrogens and progestron -action and regulation.
Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
8

DRIT –1

Paper-3

Paper Code-0502103

IMAGE ACQUISITION, PROCESSING & ARCHIVING

Topic Learning outcomes (At the end of the training program student should be able to) Teaching Guidelines Teaching Methods Hrs
X-ray film and Image processing: Demonstrate composition of film, screens, cassette, processing solution, the usage and effect of light Composition of single and double coatedradiographic films, Screen & Non Screen films, structure of film, characteristic curve. characteristics (speed, base + fog, gamma, latitude), effect of grain size on film response to exposure, interpretation of characteristics curve, latent image formation, process of film developing (composition of developer, Fixer and other processing solution), common errors and faults while processing (densitometry), automatic processing unit (processing cycle), developer & Fixer replenishment and silver recovery. Dedicated lectures, Demonstration
Seminars
Group discussions
Tutorials

8

Film storage and handling Perform best storage guidelines for film storage and handling Film storage rules and guidelines, film handling and care Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Seminars
Tutorials

8

Intensifying screens and cassettes Enumerate:
Select cassette size,
Demonstrate
Loading & unloading of films
(size, construction and function), types ofintensifying screens and relative advantage, loading and unloading of cassettes and their care/maintenance, effects of kV and mA on variation of emitted radiation intensity, determination of relative speeds, film contrast, film screen contact. Dedicated lectures
Tutorials
Demonstrations

10

Image Processing Demonstrate how to insert image plate for processing, taking the images & doing post processing Image formation, latent image, processing: manual processing,automatic processing. Developer, fixer, rinser components, replenisher. Manual technique of developing film, Automatic film processor, common errors in processing. Dedicated lectures, Demonstration

Group discussions

Tutorials

12

Factors affecting image quality Explain image quality, density & contrast, blur meaning of radiographic image contrast, density,resolution, sharpness, magnification and distortion of image, noise and blur, radiographic illuminators and viewing conditions, visual acuity and resolution, quality assurance of the related equipment and its benefits with respect to visual assessment Dedicated lectures,

Demonstration

Tutorials

6

Dark Room Demonstrate the purpose and function of dark room Introduction, purpose and location of dark room, layout of dark room,entrance, pass box, hatch, hangers, safe light, criteria of safe light, safe light test. Dedicated lectures, Demonstration
Group discussions
Tutorials

12

DICOM Demonstrate DICOM and its features Introduction, advantages, disadvantages Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations

6

Digital Radiography & Computed Radiography Demonstrate DR and CR and its their software features Introduction, advantages, disadvantages Dedicated lectures,

Demonstration

6

PACS Explain PACS and its features Introduction, advantages, disadvantages (Functions with HIS/RIS) Dedicated lectures,
Demonstration
Tutorials

6

Teleradiology Explain Tele-Radiology and its software Introduction, advantages, disadvantages Dedicated lectures,
Group discussions
Tutorials

6

PRACTICAL

Paper-3

Paper Code-0502103

IMAGE ACQUISITION, PROCESSING & ARCHIVING

Topic
  • Loading and unloading of X-ray Films
  • Technique, Safety concern, Handling in loading and unloading films
  • Dark Room Procedures
  • Developer, fixer content. Developing technique, Fixing technique
  • Safe light test
  • Safe light principal, benefits and its location
  • Cleaning & maintenance of Cassette.
  • Safe and hygienic handling of cassettes and maintenance
  • Light leakage test in Cassettes
  • Cassettes safety and image quality features
  • Handling and storage of X-ray Film & Film Boxes
  • Handling of X-ray films, easy to achieve locations, safe places of storage.
  • Using techniques of films by size of open boxes
  • Editing images in CR & Taking prints
  • Application of CR, its instrumentations, DRY and Laser printer, CR Printer’s application.
  • DICOM
  • Application, Functions, Features and its advantages.
  • Automatic processor
  • Application, principal. Working technique, work load handling in automatic processor.

 

DRIT –1

Paper-4

Paper Code-0502104

RADIATION PHYSICS

Topic Learning outcomes(At the end of the training program student should be able to) Teaching Guidelines Teaching Methods Hrs
General Physics Enumerate basic physics required to understand the basics of X-ray hardware Electrical charges, potential difference, current and resistance. Ohms Law for electrical circuit, direct current, alternating current, conductors, semiconductors, insulators, power, ammeter and voltmeter. Electromagnetism, Electromagnetic Induction: Self and Mutual, Capacitor, capacitance. Dedicated lectures
Powerpoint Presentations
Problem Based Learning
Tutorials

8

Electric system, Components and Control in X-Ray Circuit Enumerate equipment attachment of X-ray Equipment Like transformer, wires, switches etc.
Should know the technical aspects of all procedures
Electric supply & Distribution; diagnostic X-Ray circuits- X-Ray Tube, Transformers, types of transformers, losses. The Tube Stand and Control of panel: Rectification; diodes and rectifiers, semiconductors, Incoming light circuits (Phases – Single & Triple Phase modes, Three Phase 6-pulse mode, Three phase 12- pulse mode; Specialized X-Ray Generators & Transformers. Basic X-Ray circuits transformers laws and types used in X-Ray machine. The rectification of high tension, control of kilovoltage, filament circuit and tube current Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
Demonstrations

10

Exposure switches and Timer / AEC Enumerate basics of  switches required and timers Exposure switches and relays timers and its radiographic application. Beam limiting devices, Absorption co-efficient, grids, cones and filter.
Electronic Timers; Automatic Exposure Control Timers, Phototimer
Dedicated lectures
Tutorials

10

X-Ray Tubes Use X-ray equipment and maintenance of equipment.
Should know the Warm-up procedures of X-ray machine and cooling methods.
To be able to know how to use X-Ray exposure switches.
Fixed and rotating anode, faults in X-Ray tubes, Grid Controlled X-Ray Tube, Mammography X-Ray Tube, Heavy Duty X-Ray Tube, Micro-Focus X-Ray Tube; Tube Rating and Tube Support- Tube heat Ratings, Line Focus principle, Anode Cooling chart, Type of X-Ray Tube Stands. Tube overload indication, X-Ray Tube over Load Protection Circuits, Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Seminars
Group Discussion
Tutorials

14

Image Intensifier Demonstrate work flow Digital/IITV fluoroscopy equipment handling Fluoroscopic equipment, Digital Fluoroscopic, Dental radiographic equipment, Portable and Non- Portable equipments Dedicated lectures
Tutorials
Demonstrations

10

Care and maintenance Demonstrate Handling, care and maintenance of equipment & accessories Maintenance and care of all X-Ray equipment and accessories. Dedicated lectures
Tutorials
Demonstrations

8

Practical

  1. X-Ray tubes and accessories, general features.
  2. Portable X-Ray Equipment.
  3. Image intensifier, its features, spot film.
  4. Radiation protection devices
  5. Effects of kV and mAs.
  6. Maintenance of X-ray equipment and accessories.
  7. Mammography X-Ray tube
  8. Dental X-Ray unit.

 

DRIT –1

Paper-6

Paper Code-0502105

GENERAL RADIOGRAPHY

Topic Learning outcomes(At the end of the training program student should be able to) Teaching Guidelines Teaching Methods Hrs
Role of Radiographer in Hospital practice and Patient care Demonstrate his communications skills and behavior Appearance and behavior of radiographer, professional conduct, code of ethics. Dedicated lectures
Demonstrations
Seminars
Group discussions
Tutorials

10

All Views and techniques of Upper Limb Enumerate surface Anatomy of body.
Should know all views of radiography according to part.

Demonstrate the best view for better diagnosis.

Explain how to take good quality images with as low as radiation dose.

Enumerate immobilization technique and immobilization devices.

Use positioning devices.

Explain advantage of breath holding technique in Chest and Abdomen scans.

Work in clinical practice and know about patient care.

Fingers, Hand, Carpal Tunnel, Wrist Joint, Ball catcher view, Forearm, Elbow Joint, Head of Radius and Ulna, Humerus, all view of Shoulder joint like Acromio-clavicular joint, Scapula, Sterno – Clavicular joint etc. Dedicated lectures, Demonstrations
Seminars
Group discussions
Tutorials

12

All Views and techniques of Lower Limb Toes, Foot, Calcaneum, Inter-condylar Notch, Ankle Joint, Tibia and Fibula, Patella, Knee joint, Femur. Dedicated lectures, Demonstrations
Tutorials

16

All Views of Hip and Pelvis: Theatre procedure for Hip, Pinning and Reduction, Pelvis, Sacro-ilac Joint, Pelvis Bone, Acetabulum. Dedicated lectures, Demonstrations
Tutorials

10

All Views and techniques of Skull Cranium, facial bones, temporal bones, temporo-mandibular joints, mandible, Paranasal Sinuses. Dedicated lectures, Demonstration
Tutorials

8

All Views and techniques of Vertebral Column Cervical Spine, Thoracic spine, Lumbar spine, Sacrum, Coccyx Dedicated lectures, Demonstration
Tutorials

8

All View and techniques Chest: All View and techniques Chest to visualize lung fields and heart, diaphragm, Sternum, Dedicated lectures, Demonstration
Group discussions
Tutorials

8

All views and techniques Abdomen All View and techniques Chest to visualize gastro-intestinal tract, urinary tract Dedicated lectures, Demonstration
Seminars
Group discussions

6

Skeletal Survey. Enumerate all views of Skeletal survey All views required for skeletal survey Dedicated lectures
Demonstration

2

PRACTICAL
Paper Code-0502105

GENERAL RADIOGRAPHY

Topic
Regional Radiography:

  1. All Views and techniques of Upper Limb: Fingers, Hand, Carpal Tunnel, Wrist Joint, Ball catcher view,Forearm, Elbow Joint, Head of Radius and Ulna, Humerus, all view of Shoulder joint like Acromio-clavicular joint, Scapula, Sterno – Clavicularjoint etc.
  2. All Views and techniques of Lower Limb: Toes, Foot,Calcaneum, Inter-condylar Notch, Ankle Joint, Tibia and Fibula, Patella, Knee joint, Femur.
  3. All Views of Hip and Pelvis: Theatre procedure for Hip, Pinning and Reduction, Pelvis, Sacro-ilac Joint, Pelvis Bone, Acetabulum.
  4. All Views and techniques of Skull: Cranium, facial bones, temporal bones,temporo-mandibular joints, mandible, Paranasal Sinuses.
  5. All Views and techniques of Vertebral Column: Cervical Spine, Thoracic spine, Lumbar spine, Sacrum, Coccyx
  6. All View and techniques Chest: lung fields and heart, diaphragm, Sternum,
  7. All views and techniques Abdomen: Gastro-intestinal tract, urinary tract Skeletal Survey.

 

 

 

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