CURRICULUM | BMLT | THIRD YEAR

BIOCHEMISTRY 3rd YEAR CURRICULUM

Sl. No Contents of the Topics Learning Objectives (At the end of the training the student must be able to) Teaching Guidelines Methodology Time (Hours)
1 Basic concept of metabolism and their applied aspects

 

Understand the concept of metabolism of different biomolecules & its associated disorders ·         Overview of biochemistry of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

·         Overview of metabolism of Carbohydrates ;like Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, Glycogen Metabolism, HMP Shunt and TCA Cycle

·         Structure of hemoglobin

·         Diabetes  Mellitus

·         Atherosclerosis

·         Myocardial infarction

·         Nephrotic and Nephritic Syndrome

 

Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial  

 

25

2 Basic Concepts of Hormones

 

Enumerate the hormonal action & its mechanisms in the body •         Classification of Hormones

•         Mechanism of surface acting hormones and steroids hormones

•         Hormonal assessment in various endocrinal disorders

 

Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial 15
3 Clinical Enzymology  

Understand the clinical importance of enzymes & its use is therapeutics

•         Clinical importance of Enzymes and Isoenzymes in pathological disorders Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial  

 

 

10

4 Immunoassay

 

 

Perform the most sensitive analyses in the field of biochemistry

·         Structure of Immunoglobulins

·         ELISA

·         Immunoassay based analysis

Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial 10
5 Bio-Safety and Waste Disposal

 

Understand the nature of biohazards & biosafety ·         Biohazards in biochemistry laboratory and methods to prevent them

·         Proper disposal of biomedical wastes

Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial  

 

 

5

6 Releasing biochemistry reports Perform the final dispatching of clinical reports ·         How to analyze and release final reports

·         Precautions required before release of reports

5

 

MICROBIOLOGY 3rd  YEAR CURRICULUM

 

Sl. No Contents of the Topics Learning Objectives

(At the end of the training the student must be able to)

Teaching Guidelines Methodology Time (Total-70 hrs)
1 Immunology

Microbial pathogenicity

Immunity:

Innate immunity

Acquired immunity(adaptive immunity) Active and passive immunity

Reproduce what is Immunology, microbial pathogenicity; types of immunity which includes:

Innate immunity, Acquired immunity (adaptive immunity); Active and passive immunity which include: natural acquired, artificial acquired immunity, natural acquired passive immunity (breastfeeding), artificially acquired passive immunity

Topic should cover aspects of  Immunology, microbial pathogenicity; types of immunity which includes:

Innate immunity, Acquired immunity (adaptive immunity); Active and passive immunity which include: natural acquired, artificial acquired immunity, natural acquired passive immunity (breastfeeding), artificially acquired passive immunity.

Video, student interaction, didactics 4
2

 

Components of immune system :

Organs of immune system

ReproduceComponents of immune system which includes the following:

Organs of immune system

Topic should cover Components of immune system which includes the following:

Organs of immune system

Clippings, presentation, seminar 4
B Lymphocytes and plasma cells

 

 

B Lymphocytes and plasma cells (general knowledge of their role), bursa of fabricus, stem cell differentiation, gut associated lymphoid tissues GALT B Lymphocytes and plasma cells (general knowledge of their role), bursa of fabricus, stem cell differentiation, gut associated lymphoid tissues GALT
T lymphocytes and their subsets and Natural killer cells

Macrophages and dendritic cells

 

 

T lymphocytes and their subsets this includes: stem cell distribution (general information about its role), cytotoxic T cells, delayed type hypersensitivity (TD) cells, Helper T cells, Suppressor T cell, delayed type hypersensitivity cells

and Natural killer cells

Macrophages and dendritic cells.

T lymphocytes and their subsets this includes: stem cell distribution (general information about its role), cytotoxic T cells, delayed type hypersensitivity (TD) cells, Helper T cells, Suppressor T cell, delayed type hypersensitivity ells

and Natural killer cells

Macrophages and dendritic cells.

3 Immune response

Humoral immunity

i)             Cell-mediated immunity

 

Explain Immune response Which includes:

Humoral immunity: basic mechanism of humoral immunity. How humoral response eliminate antigen

Topic should cover

Immune response Which includes:

Humoral immunity: basic mechanism of humoral immunity. How humoral response eliminate antigen

Video, presentation, students interaction 2
  Cell-mediated immunity: general characteristic, recognition of self versus non-self, clonal selection theory B-ells, tolerance, clonal deletion, definition of specificity, cross reactions Cell-mediated immunity: general characteristic, recognition of self versus non-self, clonal selection theory B-ells, tolerance, clonal deletion, definition of specificity, cross reactions 2
4 Types of hypersensitivity reactions

 

Demonstratetypes of hypersensitivity reactions Topic should cover types of hypersensitivity reactions Presentation. 2
5 Autoimmunity

 

 

Reproduce what is Autoimmunity and autoimmune disorders. The topic covers Autoimmunity and autoimmune disorders. Presentation, group discussion 2
6 Cytokines Explain Cytokines and its role in immunity Topic must coverCytokines and its role in immunity Seminar, Presentation 1
7 Antigen &Antibody

Antigens

Types of antibodies  and classes of immunoglobulins

 

Reproduce

Antigen &Antibody

Antigens: epitomes (antigenic determinants), haptens, no sequence of antibody binding, titer, antigen types, antigen sensitization, plasma ells.

Types of antibodies and classes of immunoglobulins: properties of antibodies (immunoglobulin), light chains, heavy chains, constant and variable regions, antigen binding sites, Fab and F regions.

Classes of immunoglobulin IgG, IgM, IgA, J chain, secretory piece, IgE, IgD, Antibody titer.

Antigen antibody responses.

Topic should cover

Antigen &Antibody

Antigens: epitomes (antigenic determinants), haptens, no sequence of antibody binding, titer, antigen types, antigen sensitization, plasma ells.

Types of antibodies and classes of immunoglobulins: properties of antibodies (immunoglobulin), light chains, heavy chains, constant and variable regions, antigen binding sites, Fab and F regions.

Classes of immunoglobulin IgG, IgM, IgA, J chain, secretory piece, IgE, IgD, Antibody titer.

 

Antigen antibody responses.

Tutorial, presentation, student interaction 4
8 Complement

 

After this teaching, students should be able to explain

Complement system, complement activation

The topic covers students should be able to explain

Complement system, complement activation

Tutorial 2
9 Types of antigen-antibody reactions

 

Precipitation, Agglutination

Complement Fixation Test, Neutralization

ELISA, Immunofluorescence ,Radioimmunoassay, Opsonisation

Reproducetypes of antigen-antibody reactions which includes following

Precipitation, Agglutination

Complement Fixation Test, Neutralization

ELISA, Immunofluorescence ,Radioimmunoassay, Opsonisation

Topic must cover

Types of antigen-antibody reactions which includes following

Precipitation, Agglutination

Complement Fixation Test, Neutralization

ELISA, Immunofluorescence ,Radioimmunoassay, Opsonisation

Seminar, problem based learning, students interaction 4
10 Monoclonal Antibodies Reproducemonoclonal Antibodies which should include the following: production- hybridoma formation, cloning of cells. The uses of monoclonal antibodies as research tool, in diagnostic and therapies should also be explained. Topic covers -monoclonal Antibodies which should include the following: production- hybridoma formation, cloning of cells. The uses of monoclonal antibodies as research tool, in diagnostic and therapies should also be explained. Video, students seminar 2
11 Transplantation immunology and HLA typing Reproduce

Transplantation immunology and HLA typing

Student should cover

Transplantation immunology and HLA typing

Seminar, presentation 3
12 Systematic Bacteriology

Classification, Morphology, Genotypic &Phenotypic characteristics, Pathogenesis Disease caused, Lab Diagnosis &Prophylaxis of Rare pathogens

 

 

Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Legionella,

Actinomycosis&Nocordia

Rickettsia

Reproduce

Systematic Bacteriology

Which includes Classification, Morphology, Genotypic &Phenotypic characteristics, Pathogenesis,  Disease caused, Lab Diagnosis &Prophylaxis of Rare pathogens

Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Legionella,

Actinomycosis&Nocordia

Rickettsia

Topic covers Classification, Morphology, Genotypic &Phenotypic characteristics, Pathogenesis, Disease caused, Lab Diagnosis &Prophylaxis of Rare pathogens

Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Legionella,

Actinomycosis&Nocordia

Rickettsia

Problem based learning, didactics, video 7
13 Applied Microbiology

 

Bacteriology of Water, Milk,  and Air

 

Laboratory Diagnosis of

                      – Urinary Tract Infections

Diarrhea & Dysentery

Meningitis

Blood stream infection

Respiratory infection

–  Sexually Transmitted Diseases

 

Viral hepatitis

HIV

Skin, soft tissue & wound infection

 

 

 

Perform Bacteriology of Water, Milk,  and Air

2.  Laboratory Diagnosis of

 –  Urinary Tract Infections

Diarrhea & Dysentery

Meningitis

Blood stream infection

Respiratory infection

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Viral hepatitis

HIV

Skin, soft tissue & wound infection

Topic should cover

Bacteriology of Water, Milk,  and Air

2.  Laboratory Diagnosis of

\

Urinary Tract Infections

Diarrhea & Dysentery

Meningitis

Blood stream infection

Respiratory infection

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Viral hepatitis

HIV

Skin, soft tissue & wound infection

 

 

Problem based learning, students interaction, group discussion 10
14 Molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology-PCR, DNA hybridization etc

 

Demonstrate Molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology-PCR, DNA hybridization etc

 

Topic should include Molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology-PCR, DNA hybridization etc

 

Clipping, presentation 5
15 Biomedical waste management

 

Perform Biomedical waste management Topic cover Biomedical waste managemen

 

Problem based learning, group discussion 2
16 Biosafety levels and biosafety cabinets

 

Demonstrate Biosafety levels and biosafety cabinets (structure and principle) Topic should cover Biosafety levels and biosafety cabinets (structure and principle)

 

Problem based learning, student interaction, video 2
17 Health care associated infections

 

Explain Health care associated infections which includes blood borne, airborne, personal hygiene and sanitation The topic covers Health care associated infections which includes blood borne, airborne, personal hygiene and sanitation

 

Problem based learning, student interaction, video 4
18 Universal Precautions

 

Demonstrate Universal Precautions implied in hospital and labs. Topic must cover Universal Precautions implied in hospital and labs. Problem based learning, student interaction, video 1
17 Occupationally acquired infections in health care settings

 

Explain Occupationally acquired infections in health care settings like AIDS, Hepatitis B, Urinary tract infections, Fecal oral route infections, tuberculosis or respiratory tract infections. Topic should cover Occupationally acquired infections in health care settings like AIDS, Hepatitis B, Urinary tract infections, Fecal oral route infections, tuberculosis or respiratory tract infections. Students interaction, tutorial, group discussion 4
18 Vaccination for health care personnel Reproduce the Vaccination requirement and schedule for health care personnel Topic should coverVaccination requirement and schedule for health care personnel

 

Presentation, didactics 2
19 Maintenance of laboratory records, Audit

 

Perform Maintenance of laboratory records, Audit

 

Topic should cover Maintenance of laboratory records, Audit

 

Problem based learning 1

 

PATHOLOGY 3rd YEAR CURRICULUM

 

Sl. No Contents of the Topics Learning Objectives

(At the end of the training the student must be able to)

Teaching Guidelines Methodology Time
APPLIED HISTOLOGY

Handling of fresh histological specimens (Tissues).

Lipids-identification and demonstration.

Micro-organism in the tissues-various staining, techniques for their demonstration and identification.

 

 

 

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)-common antigens and their applications.

 

 

 

Electron microscope, working principles, components and allied techniques for electron microscopy.

 

 

Museum techniques.

 

 

Demonstrate and performHandling of fresh histological specimens in the form of proper documentation, fix the specimen in 40% formalin or keep in refrigerator if no fixative available, preserve specimen as test required. Tissue processing & handling their equipments

They should be able to demonstrate & know principle of IHC and their applications.

They also know type of Electron microscope, working principles, components.

They also demonstrate specimen mounting, proper fixation &proper labelling in museum techniques

The topic should cover-Techniques of specimen fixation for light microscopic examination in formalin, for immunofluorescence microscopic immediate snap freezing & for electron microscopy fix in 2% glutaraldehyde,

Tissue processing including – serially formalin-acetone-xyline –paraffin , block making, cutting, routine & special staining method.

It should cover method of IHC, adequate dilution of antibodies & application these antibodies.

It also covers detailed structure & working principle of Transmission &scanning electron microscope.

Mounting techniques of specimens

Student interactive session

 

Didactic

 

 

 

Seminar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10hr

Cytology

Cervical cytology:- Basis of detection of malignant & premalignant lesion.

 

 

 

 

Aspiration cytology:- Principles, indications and utility of the techniques

 

 

Staining:- Pap stain, H&E stain & Giemsa stain.

Cytology of various body fluids.

 

 

Demonstrate and perform-procedure of Pap’s smear staining  & able identified benign & malignant cells

Demonstrate-significance & principle aspiration cytology

 

The topic should cover- method of pap’s staining, morphological features of benign & malignant cells

The topic should cover- methods FNAC, it’s indications and it’s applications.

It also cover processing of fluid cytology pleural, peritoneal & pericardial fluid and their staining MGG, Gimsa, H&E, Pap’s

 

 

 

Didactic

 

 

Group discussion

 

 

 

Seminar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12hr

Cytogenetics

Introduction, terminology, classification & nomenclature.

 

 

 

Blood groups:- Types & Bombay blood groups.

Sex chromatin & identification

 

Chromosomes in neoplasia & oncogenes/anti-oncogenes.

 

Culture of bone marrow cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes.

 

Characterization of human chromosome by various banding techniques

 

Demonstrate & know-about cytogenetics, classification, nomenclature & significance of it.

They also know & demonstrate types of blood groups, Bombay blood groups, Sex chromatin & identification , oncogenes, chromosomal anomalies,  Culture of bone marrow cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes & application various cytogenetic techniques

The topic should cover- Definition & techniques ( PCR, FISH, In situ hybridization) of cytogenetics

Also covers different blood group system and chromosomal anomalies( BBCR-ABL, PML-RARA), chromosomal translocations & mutations, various stem cell ( bone marrow, peripheral blood, adipose tissue) purification and their cultures.

Various banding techniques for chromosome identification – G banding, Q banding

 

 

 

Didactic

 

 

 

Group discussion

 

 

 

 

Seminar

 

 

 

 

12hr

Immunopathology

Cells of the immune system.

Immunoglobulins, antibodies and humoral immune response.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Auto immune disease & investigation.

 

Infection and the immune system

 

Cancer immunology

 

 

 

Tissue typing for kidney transplant.

 

 

 

HLA Antigen

 

Various grafts & graft versus host disease (GVHD).

Monoclonal antibodies.

 

 

Demonstrate & know-   

Cells of the immune system and their functions, cellular & humoral immunity, their mechanism of actions and complications.

Demonstrate autoimmunity & their mechanism, related disease,  Infection and their immune response, Cancer immunology (Selective outgrowth of antigen-negative variants,Lack of costimulation,Immunosuppression,Antigen masking,Loss or reduced expression of MHC molecules)

Demonstratetypes of HLA Antigen ( Class-I & Class-II, Class-III), HLA typing, their significance & their reactions GVHD & HGVD in kidney transplant, Monoclonal antibodies.

 

The topic should cover- Cells of the immune system (natural killer, neutrophils macrophages, epithelial cells,dendriticcells,langhans cells, T&Blymphocytes),Immunoglobulins(IgG, IgA, IgE,IgGD).

It also cover- Auto- immune disease( SLE, RA, Sjögren’s syndrome , Type 1 Diamelitus), their investigations (ANA, Anti DS-DNA, Anti-RNA, Anti-histone),

Infections – HIV, infective endocarditic, SABE, PIGN causes immune response in body.

It also cover- The cellular & humoralrejection mechanism in kidney transplants, clinical manifestations, pathological findings of both type rejections, GVHD, investigations for immunological reactions

 

 

 

Didactic

 

 

 

 

 

Seminar

 

 

 

 

 

 

Group discussion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12hr

Haematology

Definition and classification of hemolytic anaemias :- Sickle cell anemia & Thalassemia.

 

 

 

Laboratory investigation for haemolyticanaemia including classification & causes.

 

Leukaemia’s; definition and classification

 

Laboratory investigations for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), Hemophilia

Mechanism of fibrinolysis; tests for fibrinolysis.

Platelet function test and their interpretation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electrophoresis :- Principles and application in hematology

 

 Demonstrate & know- pathogenesis, etiology & clinical features of  hemolytic anaemias :- Sickle cell anemia & Thalassemia

They also demonstrate lab investigations & classification of haemolyticanaemia

Demonstrate-definition and classification of leukaemia’s, their clinical features.

Laboratory investigations for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), Hemophilia

Mechanism of fibrinolysis; tests for fibrinolysis.

Platelet function test and their interpretation.

Demonstrate-Principles and application in hematology of Hb electrophoresis

 

The topic should cover- pathological findings of the( Bone marrow & PBF) hemolytic anaemias, Sickle cell anemia & Thalassemia ( types of thalassemia-major, minor, intermediate),

Laboratory investigation of haemolyticanaemia- fragmented cells in PBF, increased LDH, increase bilirubin, low Hb.

It also cover – type of leukaemia’s (Acute & chronic), their pathological findings,

It should cover- increase fibrin degraded products, anaemia, thrombocytopenia,

Bleeding manifestations,

Their pathological findings and clinical manifestations

It also cover- methods & type of  Hbelecrophosis( Acetic acid, Citrate agar,) HPLC

 

Didactic

 

 

 

 

Group discussion

 

Seminar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12hr

Transfusion medicine & blood banking

 

Blood groups:-  Types & Bombay blood group

Blood donor selection.

 

Methods of bleeding donors.

 

Blood containers, anticoagulants and storage of blood.

 

Coomb’s test and its significance.

 

Screening of blood for infective material

Blood components, preparation & component therapy.

 

Transfusion reactions and work up

 

Blood bank organization, standards, procedures, techniques and quality control.

 

HLA Antigens

 

At the end of this teaching the students should be able to demonstrate- :-  Types & Bombay blood group, their significance

Blood donor selection criteria according NACO guidelines, methods of bleeding donors and related complications,

Use of different blood containers, anticoagulants and storage of blood. Screening of blood for infective material by testing standrizations

Blood components, preparation & component therapy.

They should able to demonstrate Blood bank organization, standards, procedures, techniques and quality control and HLA typing , Compatibility & incompatibility of tests in blood transfusion, complications of blood transfusion and laboratory investigation of transfusion reactions, & mismatched

The topic should cover-

ABO, RH, Kell, Duffy blood group systems, Methods of cross matching,  Blood component, transfusion reactions (immune mediated & nonimmune type reactions) and immediate type & delayed type reactions, other complications –iron overload, hyper & hypo potassium, fluid overload.

Laboratory investigations included ICT, DCT, microbiological, PBF for hemolysis, LDH, bilirubin, urine blood testing.

Procedure of PRC, FFP, PRP, SDP preparations.

Didactic

 

 

Group discussion

 

Seminar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Student interactive session

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12hr

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