CURRICULUM | BMLT | FIRST YEAR

BIOCHEMISTRY  1st YEAR CURRICULUM

Sl. No Contents of the Topics Learning Objectives (At the end of the training the student must be able to) Teaching Guidelines Methodology Time (Hours)
1 Specimen Collection Perform different types of specimen collection, use of proper anticoagulants & preservatives •         Types of Specimens.

•         Method of specimen collection (Blood, Plasma, Serum, Urine and other body fluids)

•         Pre-analytical & analytical variables

•         Use of preservatives in specimen collection

•         Use of proper Anticoagulants in specimen collection

Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial  

 

10

2 Introduction to Laboratory Apparatus:

 

Overview of the functioning of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory.

 

Introduction to glass wares:

 

Enumerate the maintenance and care of different Laboratory Glass wares. •         Pipettes and their calibration (different types of pipettes viz. graduated, volumetric and automated pipettes).

•         Burettes and Beakers.

•         Flasks and their applications (volumetric, conical and round bottomed).

•         Reagent Bottles (graduated , common, Wash bottles and specimen bottles).

•         Funnels and their uses.

•         Measuring cylinders.

•         Test tubes and eppendorf tubes.

•         Test tube draining rack, bottle racks, Pipette stands, tripod stand, wire gauze and Bunsen burner.

•         Cuvettes and their application  in Colorimetry and Spectrdophotometry.

•         Bottle Dispensers and their Maintenance.

•         Maintenance, Care and cleaning of laboratory glassware.

Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial 15
3 Introduction to the Laboratory Instruments and their use, care and maintenance:

 

 

Explain the uses, care & maintenance of different Laboratory Instruments •         Waterbath

•         Oven

•         Incubators

•         Water Distillation Plant and Deionizers

•         Refrigerators

•         Centrifuges

•         Laboratory Balance

•         Electrical Balances

•         Colorimeter

•         Spectrophotometer

•         pH Meter, its calibration & uses.

Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial  

 

 

15

4 Conventional and SI units used in the Laboratory Understand the use of Conventional & SI units used in the laboratory •         Molecular and equivalent weight

•         Normality, molality, molarity

•         Concentrations of solutions by w/w, w/v, v/v etc.

•         Molar solutions and Percent solutions.

Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial 5
5 Dilutions of Solutions or Samples: Perform serial dilutions, preparation of different types of solution •         Serial dilutions of samples.

•         Proper method of dilution of a solution or a laboratory sample.

•         Preparation of standard solutions.

•         Significance of volumetric flask in preparing standard solutions.

•         Preparation of a stock standard and working standard.

•         Saturated and supersaturated solutions.

Lecture (using audio-visual aids) Demontration, Tutorial  

 

 

20

6 Basic concept of Acids, Bases, Salts and Indicators Reproduce the concept of mechanisms of acid, base, buffers and their functions in the human body •         Acid, base, salts and buffers

•         Indicators and their Functions

•         Buffers of the body

Lecture, Demontration, Tutorial  

 

5

 

 

 MICROBIOLOGY 1st YEAR CURRICULUM

Sl. No Contents of the Topics Learning Objectives(At the end of the training the student must be able to) Teaching Guidelines Methodology Time

(Total-70 hrs)

1 General Microbiology

Microscopy

Light microscope, Dark field, Phase contrast microscopy, Fluorescent & Electron microscopy

Demonstrate the Structure and principle of: Light microscope, Dark field, Phase contrast microscopy, Fluorescent & Electron microscopy The topic should cover Structure and principle of: Light microscope, Dark field, Phase contrast microscopy, Fluorescent & Electron microscopy Demonstrating compound microscopes and didactic 4

 

 

 

 

 

2 Sterilization and Disinfection

Physical Methods of Sterilization

Chemical Methods of Sterilization

Methods of Disinfection

Enumerate – Physical Methods of Sterilization:. – Chemical Methods of Sterilization:

Structure and working principle of basic instruments used in sterilization: Hot air oven, Autoclave.

The topic should cover Physical Methods of Sterilization: Dry heat, Moist heat, inspissations, tindalization, pasteurization, filtration and radiation. Chemical Methods of Sterilization: Alcohols (ethyl, isopropyl, tricholorobutanol); aldehydes (formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde); dyes; halogens; phenols; surface active agents; metallic salts; gases (ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, betapropiolactone). Structure and working principle of basic instruments used in sterilization: Hot air oven, Autoclave. Didactic and demonstration of instruments

 

2
3 Growth, Nutrition & Metabolism of Bacteria   Enumerate classification of nutritional types of bacteria (phototrophs, chemotrophs, autotrophs and obligate parasites).

Physical conditions necessary for microbial growth (temperature, pH, gaseous requirements (aerobic and anaerobic growth and culture technique); growth, bacterial growth curve (lag phase, log phase, stationary phase, decline phase)

The topic should cover nutritional types of bacteria (phototrophs, chemotrophs, autotrophs and obligate parasites).

Physical conditions necessary for microbial growth (temperature, pH, gaseous requirements (aerobic and anaerobic growth and culture technique); growth, bacterial growth curve (lag phase, log phase, stationary phase, decline phase)

Didactic and power point presentations 3
4 Bacterial genetics 

 

Reproduce what is central dogma, transmission of genetic material (transformation, transduction, conjugation) The topic should cover central dogma; transmission of genetic material

(transformation, transduction, conjugation)

Didactic and video

 

5
5 Bacterial Culture and Identification

(a) Culture Media & Transport Media

(b)Sample collection and transport Methods

(c)Aerobic Bacterial Culture Techniques

(d)Anaerobic Bacterial Culture Techniques

(e)Smear preparation & Staining methods

(f)Principle and techniques of biochemical Test

Explain different types of media: Culture Media (simple, complex, synthetic, enriched, selective, differential, indicator, Transport Media, anaerobic media)

Perform how to do Sample collection and transport Methods of blood, sputum, urine, feces, and swabs-nasopharengeal, rectal and wound

Perform

Streak culture (surface plating), Lawn or carpet culture, Stroke culture, Stab culture, Pour Plate culture

ElaborateAnaerobic Bacterial Culture Techniques.

Perform Smear preparation, Gram staining, Z N staining

Perform techniques of biochemical Test which includes Catalase, Coagulase, Oxidase, Indole, MR, VP, Urease, Citrate, Triple Sugar Iron Agar, Sugar Fermentation Tests).

(a) The topic should cover different types of media: Culture Media (simple, complex, synthetic, enriched, selective, differential, indicator, Transport Media, anaerobic media)

(b) The topic should cover demonstration of Sample collection and transport Methods of blood, sputum, urine, feces, and swabs-nasopharengeal, rectal and wound

(c) The topic should cover

Streak culture (surface plating), Lawn or carpet culture, Stroke culture, Stab culture, Pour Plate culture

(d) The topic should cover Anaerobic Bacterial Culture Techniques by

Production of a vacuum.

Displacement of oxygen.

By displacement and combustion of oxygen.

Absorption of oxygen by chemical or Biological Methods.

By reducing agents.

Anaerobic chamber

(e) The topic should cover Principle Procedure and Interpretation of Gram staining, Z N staining

(f) The topic should cover techniques of biochemical Test which includes Catalase, Coagulase, Oxidase, Indole, MR, VP, Urease, Citrate, Triple Sugar Iron Agar, Sugar Fermentation Tests).

 

Didactic, video and practical demonstration. Students seminars and practical demonstration

 

8
6 Morphology, Classification & infection caused by Microorganisms (in brief)

Bacteria

Morphology, Classification

Human infection caused by bacteria

Explain-Morphology of bacteria: Fine structure of bacteria: Size, shapes and arrangement of bacterial cells;

 Human infection caused by bacteria: tuberculosis, tetanus

 The topic should cover-Morphology of bacteria: Fine structure of bacteria: Size, shapes and arrangement of bacterial cells;

 Human infection caused by bacteria: tuberculosis, tetanus

Didactic, video and presentation 4
7 Viruses

Morphology, Classification

Human infection caused by Viruses

 

Elaborate classification of virus based on nucleic material- RNA and DNA viruses. General structure and characteristics of viruses.

Human infection caused by Viruses: AIDS and hepatitis B

The topic should cover Classification of virus based on nucleic material- RNA and DNA viruses. General structure and characteristics of viruses.

Human infection caused by Viruses: AIDS and hepatitis B

Didactic, video and presentation, group discussion 4
8 Fungi 

Morphology, Classification

Human infection caused by Fungi

 

Classify fungi based on reproduction and hyphal structure

Morphology: general structure of common fungus- Aspergillus, Penicillium.

Human infection caused by Fungi: Superficial Mycoses:

Dermatophytes,

Candidiasis.

The topic should cover classification of fungi based on reproduction and hyphal structure. Morphology: general structure of common fungus- Aspergillus, Penicillium.

Human infection caused by Fungi: Superficial Mycoses:

Dermatophytes,

Candidiasis.

Didactic, video and presentation and practical demonstration

 

4
9 Parasites               

Morphology, Classification

Human infection caused by Parasite

Reproduce outline of primary subdivision- mastigophora, rhizopoda, sporozoa, ciliates and their general structural characteristics

Human infection caused by Parasite: Entamoeba and Giardi

The topic should cover primary subdivision- mastigophora, rhizopoda, sporozoa, ciliates and their general structural characteristics

Human infection caused by Parasite: Entamoeba and Giardia

Didactic, video and presentation and practical demonstration, group discussion 4
10 Immunology

Immunity

Antigen & Antibody

Antigen antibody reactions I

Precipitation

Agglutination

Antigen antibody reactions II.

Complement fixation, Neutralization,

ELISA, RIA, IF

Demonstrate difference between Innate immunity

And Acquired immunity (adaptive immunity) Active and passive immunity

Antigen & Antibody-General Structure and types

Antigen antibody reactions I

Precipitation, Agglutination

Antigen antibody reactions II

Complement fixation, Neutralization, ELISA, RIA, IF

To cover Innate immunity

And Acquired immunity (adaptive immunity) Active and passive immunity

Antigen & Antibody-General Structure and types

Antigen antibody reactions I

Precipitation, Agglutination

Antigen antibody reactions II

Complement fixation, Neutralization, ELISA, RIA, IF

Didactic, video and presentation

 

15
11 Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing

Antimicrobials and their mode of action

Mechanisms of drug resistance  

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

(a)Diffusion Methods Dilution Methods

 

 

Perform

Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing

They should be able to explain Antimicrobials and their mode of action

Mechanisms of drug resistance  

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Diffusion Methods

Dilution Methods

The topic should cover

Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing

They should be able to explain Antimicrobials and their mode of action

Mechanisms of drug resistance

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Diffusion Methods

Dilution Methods

Didactic, video and presentation and practical demonstration

 

7
12 Systemic Bacteriology

Morphology, culture characteristic, identification, diseases caused and laboratory diagnosis of following bacteria.

Staphylococcus,

Streptococcus,

Streptococcus pneumonae

Neisseria,

Corynebacterium,

Clostridium,

Mycobacteria,                                                                                                         Bacillus,                                                                                                            Shigella,

Salmonella,                                                                                                             E.coli,

Klebsiella, Proteus,                                                                                             Vibrio, Pseudomonas

Spirochetes

At the end of this teaching the students should be able to reproduce Morphology, culture characteristic, identification, diseases caused and laboratory diagnosis of following bacteria. 

·         Staphylococcus,

·         Streptococcus,

·         Streptococcus pneumonae

·         Neisseria,

·         Corynebacterium,

·         Clostridium,

·         Mycobacteria,

·         Bacillus,

·         Shigella,

·         Salmonella,

·         E.coli,

·         Klebsiella, Proteus,

·         Vibrio, Pseudomonas

·         Spirochetes

The topic should cover Morphology, culture characteristic, identification, diseases caused and laboratory diagnosis of following bacteria.

 

 

 

·         Staphylococcus,

·         Streptococcus,

·         Streptococcus pneumonae

·         Neisseria,

·         Corynebacterium,

·         Clostridium,

·         Mycobacteria,

·         Bacillus,

·         Shigella,

·         Salmonella,

·         E.coli,

·         Klebsiella, Proteus,

·         Vibrio, Pseudomonas

·         Spirochetes

 

Didactic, video and presentation 10

 

PATHOLOGY 1st YEAR CURRICULUM

 

Sl. No Contents of the Topics Learning Objectives

(At the end of this teaching the students should be able to)

Teaching Guidelines Methodology Time
Basic Pathology:

Pathology & its branches

Normal cell and its functions

Various types of microscope& light microscope in details.

Elaborate about pathology & it’s branches and demonstrate  the, normal  Structure and principle of :Light microscope, Dark field, Phase contrast microscopy, Fluorescent & Electron microscopy and cell morphology with their functions

 

The topic should cover Structure and principle of: Light microscope, Dark field, Phase contrast microscopy, Fluorescent & Electron microscopy

Branches of pathology including haematology, cytology, histopathology, blood banking, immunology

 

Didactic

Group discussion

 

Seminar

 

 

 

 

05hr

Haematology

Introduction to haematology and laboratory Organization.

Formation of Blood

Composition and functions of blood

Various anticoagulants, their uses, mode of action and their merits & demerits.

Collection & preservation of blood for various hematological investigations.

 

Normal haematological indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC, PCV)

Normal and absolute values in haematology.

Quality assurance in hematology.

Various methods of estimation of Hb involved and standardization of instrument.

Haemocytometery:- Procedure of cell count, visual as well as electronic red cell, Leukocytes and platelet count.

Romanowsky dyes, preparation and staining procedure of blood smears.

Morphology of normal blood cells and their identification.

ESR & Factors influencing ESR and various procedures for its estimation.

Elaborate about haematology laboratory & it’s management and demonstrate blood formation, blood components and their uses, use  of Various anticoagulants, their uses, mode of action and their merits & demerits.

They also able to demonstrate the sample collection & preservation of blood for various haematological investigations in refrigerators.

They will able to describe normal and absolute values of haematology investigations.

 

They able to know quality assurance in haematology,

They will demonstrate methods, their principle & know the factors which affects  of Hb estimation, Haemocytometer, Romanowsky dyes & ESR

The topic should cover all haematological investigation CBC, DLC, red cell’s indices, ESR.

Blood components- whole blood, FFP, PCV, PRP, SDP.

Various anticoagulants-EDTA, Trisodium citrate,

Heparin, double oxalate, sodium fluoride.

Quality assurance includes data managements, record checking, to examine the results of quality controls.

Method of Hb estimation –Sahli, Cynometh-haemoglobine, oxyhaemoglobine and standarazation.

Manual method of haemocytometer –neubaurchamber TLC, TRBC & Platelets

Automated method-   Semiautomated& Fully automated usually have a high level of precision.

Romanowsky dyes-wright’s, Giemsa, Jenner &leishman’s stains

Method of ESR estimation – westergren’s&wintrobe’s method

 

 

 

 

Didactic

 

 

 

Student interactive session

 

 

 

 

Seminar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

05hr

Clinical Pathology

Normal urine- Physical and chemical properties.

Body fluid sample such as CSF, pleural fluid &Ascitic fluid –normal values.

 

Semen – Normal

 

 

Describe Physical and chemical properties of urine, normal composition of CSF, pleural fluid and ascetic fluid and semen

The topic should cover colour, appearance, order, specific gravity & volume of urine in physical properties,

Chemical test includes- Heat acetic acid test &eshbachalbinometer for protein detection, Benedict’s test for sugar detection, Rothera’s test for ketones  detection, fouchet’s test for bile pigment detection,   Hay’s suffer test for bile salt detection,

Semen analysis includes – normal sperm counts, morphology, motility, viability of sperms

 

 

 

 

Didactic

 

Seminar

 

Group discussion

 

 

 

 

 

10hr

Basic Transfusion medicine

History and discovery of blood group system.

ABO and Rhesus blood group system.

Other blood group system.

 

Demonstrate type of blood group system and their significance

The topic should cover discovery of blood groups, type of blood groups- ABO, Rh, duffy, Kell, lewis, Bombay blood group  

 

 

 

Didactic

Seminar

 

 

 

 

10hr

Histopathology

Grossing, Tissue Processing, Fixation, section cutting & staining with Haematoxylin& eosin with other special staining.

Biomedical waste management

 

Demonstrate various histo-techniques – grossing, tissue processing, fixation, staining with routine & special staining.

 

Perform Biomedical waste management

The topic should cover small & large specimen grossing, steps of tissue processing, different type of fixative( 40% formalin).

Routine staining- H&E,

Special staining- PAS, Reticulin, MT, ZN staining. Methods of Biomedical waste management

 

Didactic

 

 

Student interactive session

Group discussion

 

 

 

 

10hr

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