Curriculum | Bachelor of Optometry | First Year

Paper-1 GENERAL ANATOMY & GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY      

80 hours

Topic Learning outcomes
[At the end of the session student should be able to]
Teaching Guidelines Teaching Methods Hours
Introduction to human body Reproduce briefly about different parts of human body and cell structure Introduction to Anatomy, terms and terminology. Regions of Body, Cavities and systems.
Cell and various types of tissue of the body, Epithelium and glands of body with examples
Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
6 hours
Embryology and development Enumerate different stages of development of fetus from zygot. Spermatogenesis, oogenesis, Ovulation, Fertilization, Placenta Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
6 hours
Skeletal system of Human body Describe different parts of skeletal system Bone, Cartilage, Joints, Tendons, Muscles of the body, Nerve muscle junction Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
8 hours
Circulatory System Enumerate different parts of circulatory system and their functioning Heart, Pericardium, Cardiac cycle, Heart sounds, Blood pressure, ECG, The Blood-RBC, WBC, Platelets, Plasma, Haemoglobin, Blood groups, Rh system, Blood donation, Main arteries and veins of the body & Lymphatic system Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
10 hours
Digestive system Enumerate different parts of digestive system and juices secreted Parts of gastro intestinal tract, Liver, The Gall bladder, Pancreas & Spleen, Peritoneum and functions of each part Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
8 hours
Respiratory system Enumerate different parts of respiratory system and their functioning Airway, Lungs, Thoracic cavity, Nose and para-nasal sinuses. Physiology of respiration, exchange of gases between lungs and blood. Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
6 hours
Endocrine Organs of body Reproduce different glands of endocrine system and their functions Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pancreas, Adrenal glands, Diabetes mellitus. Functions of hormones secreted by different glands of body Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
6 hours
Excretory System Enumerate different parts of excretory system and their functions Kidney, ureter, gall bladder, urethra-Physiology of urine formation Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
6 hours
Reproductive system Reproduce different parts of male and female reproductive system and their functions Male and female reproductive organs, Mammary glands, Male and female hormones, Menstrual cycle Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
8 hours
Central Nervous System Reproduce different parts of CNS and their functions Brain & Cranial Nerves, Spinal Cord and peripheral nerves, Autonomic nervous system, Functions of different parts of  nervous system, Neuron, Synapse, Reflex action, Transmission of nerve impulse,  EEG, Cerebro spinal fluid Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
10 hours
Sensory organs Enumerate different sensory organs and their functions Skin, Ear, Eye, Nose, Tongue Didactic lectures using power point presentations
Demonstrations
Group discussions
Tutorials
6 hours

 


Paper-2 Ocular Anatomy and Physiology     

60 hours

S. No Contents of the Topic Learning Objectives
[At the end of the training students should be able to]
Teaching Guidelines Teaching Methodology Time
1 Embryology of the eye in general Enumerate the stages of eyeball formation Discuss in brief different stages of formation of eyeball Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
6 hours
2 Different parts of eyeball and their functions Enumerate parts of eyeball and their functions Functions of Eyelids, Anterior segment of eyeball, posterior segment of eyeball, Optic nerve Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
6 hours
3 Anatomy of Orbit Enumerate the anatomy of orbit its immediate relations, walls of orbit, fissures and foramina, anatomical spaces of orbit Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
4 hours
4 Lids and eye lid glands Enumerate anatomy of eyelid and its glands Layers of eyelid, Meibomian glands Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
4 hours
5 Conjunctiva. Cornea and Sclera Enumerate the anatomy of conjunctiva, cornea and sclera Layers, functions, Why cornea is transparent Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
4 hours
6 Uveal tissue, Pupil, AC Enumerate the anatomy and physiology of iris, ciliary body, choroid, pupil and AC Layers, functions, Formation and drainage of aqueous humour Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
4 hours
7 Lens and Vitreous Enumerate the anatomy of lens and vitreous Structure of lens and vitreous, primary vitreous, secondary vitreous Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
4 hours
8 Retina, Optic nerve Enumerate the anatomy of retina and optic nerve Layers of retina, parts of optic nerve, blood supply, regeneration of optic nerve, is optic nerve a true nerve Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
2 hours
9 Ocular Muscles and movements of eyeball Enumerate the anatomy of ocular muscles and movements Intra ocular and extra-ocular muscles of eyeball and muscles of eyelids, their actions, nerve supply
Ductions, Versions, vergences
Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
4 hours
10 Neurophysiology of eyeball Enumerate the anatomy of Visual pathway
Pupillary reflexes
Autonomic nervous system of eyeball
Visual acuity and form sense
Visual pathway, Pupillary reflexes—Light reflex, near reflex, psychosensory reflex
Color vision, night vision, visual fields, BSV, IOP
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in relation to eyeball.
Vascular supply of eyeball
Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
10 hours
11 Lacrimal apparatus Enumerate the anatomy of lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal Puncta, canaliculi, sac, NLD Didactic lectures [PPP]
Charts
Seminars
2

 


 

Ocular Pathology
First year

Theory -60 hours

practical -40 hours                                                                                                              

S.N

Content of the Topic

Learning Objective
[At the end of the program student should be able to]

Teaching Guidelines

Methodology

Lecture hours

1

HAEMATOLOGY Demonstrate fundamental knowledge and insight into general pathology and
General medical disorder and how they can affect the eye.
  1. Blood Cells and blood collection techniques
  2. Haemoglobin estimation
  3. Total leucocyte count
  4. Differential leucocyte count
  5. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  6. Peripheral blood film – staining, significance of a peripheral smear
  7. Bleeding time, clotting time

 

PowerPoint presentation

Show video and pictures

Topic notes and articles to students

Group discussion
Tutorial classes

20 hours

2

CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Demonstrate fundamental knowledge and insight into general pathology and
General medical disorder and how they can affect the eye.
  1. Urine collection methods
  2. Physical Examination of Urine
  3. Chemical Examination of Urine
  4. Microscopic Examination of Urine

 

PowerPoint presentation

Topic notes and articles to students

Group discussion

Tutorial classes

20 hours

3

HISTOPATHOLOGY Demonstrate fundamental knowledge and insight into general pathology and
General medical disorder and how they can affect the eye.
  1. Grossing of tissue
  2. Tissue processing
  3. Fixation of tissue
  4. Section cutting
  5. Staining – Hematoxylin&Cosin and Special Stains

 

PowerPoint presentation

Topic notes and articles to students

Group discussion
Tutorial classes

20 hours

 


Paper-4 OCULAR MICROBIOLOGY

Theory: 60 Hours

S.no Contents Learning objectives
(At the end of session, the student should be able to)
Teaching Guidelines
(To Cover)
Methodology Time
1. Introduction to Microbiology and Classification Explain briefly the classification of bacteria, viruses and fungi.
Learn basic staining techniques, principle and procedure and interpretation with example
Classification of Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi.
Structure of bacteria, shapes of Bacteria.
Staining- Gram, ZN, Capsule staining.
Oral explanation using PowerPoint presentation.

Tutorials

7hr
2. Gram Positive Bacteria Develop very basic understanding of Gram positive cocci and bacilli of ocular importance. Very Brief description about Gram positive Cocci and Bacilli (Not more than 1-2 paragraphs)
Cocci
Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,
Pneumococci
Bacilli
Corynebacterium,Bacillus-( B.anthracis, B.cereus).
Mycobacteria, Actinomyces
Nocardia
Oral explanation using PowerPoint presentation.

Tutorials

10hr
3. Gram Negative Bacteria Develop basic understanding of Gram negative cocci and bacilli of ocular importance. Very Brief description about Gram negative Cocci and Bacilli (Not more than 1-2 paragraphs)
Cocci—Gonococci, Meningococci. Acinetobacter
Moraxella lacunata
Bacilli —Pseudomonas
Haemophilus, Acinetobactor
Enterobacteriaceae, Brucella
Spirochetes (Treponema)
Oral explanation using PowerPoint presentation.

Tutorials

10hr
4. Fungi- saprophyticand pathogenic Develop elementary knowledge of classification of fungi and brief description of fungi of ocular importance. Morphological Classification of fungi, Fungi of ocular importance- Brief description about Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Candia, Coccidioides, Dermatophytes, Histoplasma, Oral explanation using PowerPoint presentation.
Tutorials
9hr
5. Virus Develop basic knowledge of morphology, classification of viruses.
Brief description of Herpes viruses, hepatitis viruses, Human immunodeficiency viruses.
 Elementary Knowledge of Morphology, Classification of viruses on the basis of presence of nucleic acid.  Herpes viruses, hepatitis viruses, Human immunodeficiencyviruses. Oral explanation using PowerPoint presentation.

Tutorials

9hr
6. Aseptic Techniques Gain elementary idea about Sterilization methods Define Sterilization, Disinfection, and Antiseptics.
Enumerate and explain
Physical Methods of Sterilization
Chemical Methods of Sterilization
Oral explanation using PowerPoint presentation.
Tutorials
9hr
7. Chlamydia and parasites Develop very basic knowledge about parasites of ocular importance and chlamydia. Classification of ocular parasites, brief description of parasites of ocular importance. A very brief description about chlamydia. Oral explanation using PowerPoint presentation.
Tutorials
6hr

 


Paper-5 Ocular Biochemistry  

Theory -60 hours 

S.N

Contents of the Topics

Learning Objective
[At the end of the program student should be able to]

Teaching Guidelines

Teaching methodology

Lecture hours

1

Introduction to various biochemical test Basic knowledge about bio-chemical tests How to do, clinical significance of
KFT-Blood urea, Serum Creatinine,
S electrolytes
LFT
SGOT, SGPT, S Alkaline phosphatase
S lipid profile
PowerPoint presentation
Tutorials
Seminars

8 hours

2

Tear film and pH Reproduce the formation and  clinical significance of tear film Formation of tears, Basic and reflex tear secretion, Layers of tear film
pH of tears and significance
PowerPoint presentation

Tutorials
Seminars

8 hours

3

General Introduction to metabolic processes affecting the eye Enumerate metabolism of eyeball Glycolysis
HMP shunt
Krebs cycle
Sorbitol pathway
PowerPoint presentation

Tutorials
Seminars

4 hours

4

Rhodopsin cycle Enumerate electrochemical changes involved in the process of seeing Photopigment- Rhodopsin &Iodopin. Chemical nature of Rhodopsin, Visual cycle PowerPoint presentation

Tutorials
Seminars

6 hours

5

Aqueous and Vitreous humours Enumerate brief knowledge of aq. and vit. humor Formation and drainage of aqueous humour, its composition, functions
Primary and secondary vitreous humour
PowerPoint presentation

 

Tutorials
Seminars

8 hours

6

Metabolism of lens and cornea Enumerate metabolism of lens and cornea Biochemical composition of cornea and lens Source of nutrients-oxygen, Glucose, Amino acid
lens protein- their types & characteristics. Cataract – Due to biochemical defect of lens. Antioxidant mechanism in the lens.
PowerPoint presentation

 

Tutorials
Seminars

6 hours

 


Paper-6 Physical and Geometrical Optics
Theory- 70 hours

S. No Topic

Learning Objective
[At the end of the program student should be able to]

Teaching Guidelines Teaching Methodology Hours
1 Elementary basis of light Enumerate the brief idea about Refraction, Reflection, Interference, diffraction, polarization, spectrum of light, Law of inverse square Basic understanding of refraction, reflection, diffraction, polarization, interference, law of inverse square giving examples from day to day life. Didactic lectures through power point presentations
Seminars
12 hours
2 Types of Lenses- Explain characteristics of diff. types of lenses Explain differences between diff. types of lensesConvex, Concave, Spherical, Cylindrical &Toric., Aspheric surfaces
Brief idea about thin Lens equation, thick lens equation, Front and back vertex power, Determination of focal length & dioptric power of lens
Didactic lectures through power point presentations
Seminars
Tutorials
12 hours
3 Aberrations of lenses and eyeball Explain about different types of aberrations Brief description about diff types of aberrations, how to reduce aberrations in lenses and how nature has tried to reduce aberrations in eyeball Didactic lectures through power point presentations
Seminars
Tutorials
4 hours
4 Prisms Enumerate uses and measurement of power of prism Brief description about Definition, uses, nomenclature, How to detect and measure power of a prism, Compounding and resolving prism powers Didactic lectures through power point presentations
Seminars
Tutorials
4 hours
5 Strum’s Conoid Enumerate definition, ray diagram Explain clinical significance and relate with diff. types of astigmatisms Didactic lectures [PPP] 2 hours
6 How to check power of unknown lens Demonstrate neutralization of lenses Basic concepts about Image formation by convex and concave lenses, Notations of lens, Combination of lens Didactic lectures through power point presentations
Demonstrations
12 hours
7 Effectivity of lens Reproduce back vertex power, Gauss theorem Brief description of Gauss theorem, BVD Didactic lectures [PPP]
Seminars
Tutorials
3 hours
8 Focimeter Demonstrate working of focimeter Principle, Uses, Advantages, Sources of error, Optical Centre & Axis Marking by focimeter Didactic lectures [PPP]
Demonstrations
6 hours
9 Simple &Toric transposition Solve problems related to simple and toric transpositions Solve problems related to simple and toric transpositions, Significance of transposition Didactic lectures [PPP]
Tutorial
Student seminar
12 hours
10 Prismatic effect &Decentration, Prentice rule Enumerate prismatic effect in a spectacle lens How to introduce prismatic effect in a spectacle lens, Prentice rule Didactic lectures [PPP]
Demonstrations
3 hours

 

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