Curriculum | B. Sc. (Microbiology) | Third Year

Paper 1: Immunology and medical microbiology

Time: 80 hours

S. no
(Theory 1)
Topic Learning objective(At the end of the session student should be able to) Teaching guidelines Methodology Time
1. (a). History of immunology (a). Reproduce contributions of following scientists to the development of field of immunology – Edward Jenner, Karl Landsteiner, Robert Koch, Paul Ehrlich, Elie Metchnikoff, Peter Medawar, MacFarlane Burnet, Neils K Jerne, Rodney Porter and Susumu Tonegawa . (a).To cover contributions of Edward Jenner, Karl Landsteiner, Robert Koch, Paul Ehrlich, Elie Metchnikoff, Peter Medawar, MacFarlane Burnet, Neils K Jerne, Rodney Porter and Susumu Tonegawa (a). didactic, student interactive session (a). 6 hours
(b). Introduction to immune cells and organs (b).Enumerate concept of Innate and Adaptive immunity;  Structure, Functions and Properties of: Immune Cells – Stem cell, T cell, B cell, NK cell, Macrophage, Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Mast cell, Dendritic cell; and Immune Organs – Bone Marrow, Thymus, Lymph Node, Spleen, GALT, MALT, CALT (b).To cover to immune cells and organs in detail with diagrams (b). didactic, student interactive session, group discussion (b). 7 hours
(c).Antigens and antibodies (c). Demonstrate characteristics of an antigen (Foreignness, Molecular size and Heterogeneity); Haptens; Epitopes (T & B cell epitopes); T-dependent and T-independent antigens; Adjuvants Structure, Types, Functions and Properties of antibodies; Antigenic determinants on antibodies (Isotypic, allotypic, idiotypic); VDJ rearrangements; Monoclonal and
Chimeric antibodies.
(c).To cover concepts of – Characteristics of an antigen (Foreignness, Molecular size and Heterogeneity); Haptens; Epitopes (T & B cell epitopes); T-dependent and T-independent antigens; Adjuvants Structure, Types, Functions and Properties of antibodies; Antigenic determinants on antibodies (Isotypic, allotypic, idiotypic); VDJ rearrangements; Monoclonal and
Chimeric antibodies
(c).didactic, teacher seminar, problem based learning (c). 7 hours
2. (a). Major histocompatibility complex (a).Enumerate Organization of MHC locus (Mice & Human); Structure and Functions of MHC I & II molecules; Antigen processing and presentation (Cytosolic and Endocytic pathways) (a). To cover MHC concept and system in detail (a). didactic, student seminar, group discussion

 

(a). 5 hours

 

(b). Complement system, immune response (b). Reproduce and explain concept of Components of the Complement system; Activation pathways (Classical, Alternative and Lectin pathways); Biological consequences of complement activation. Primary and Secondary Immune Response; Generation of Humoral Immune Response (Plasma and Memory cells); Generation of Cell Mediated Immune Response (Self MHC restriction, T cell activation, Co- stimulatory signals); Killing Mechanisms by CTL and NK cells, Introduction to tolerance (b). To cover Complement system and immune response in detail with diagrams b). didactic, problem based learning (b). 5 hours
(c).Immunologica-l disorders (c). Demonstrate types of autoimmunity and hypersensitivity with examples; Immunodeficiencies – Animal models (Nude and SCID mice), SCID, DiGeorge syndrome, Chediak- Higashi syndrome, Leukocyte adhesion deficiency, CGD; Characteristics of tumor antigens. (c).To cover Immunologica-l disorders- focus on specific examples (c). didactic, student interactive session, student seminar (c).5 hours
(d).Immunologica-l techniques (d). Enumerate principles of Precipitation, Agglutination, Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA, ELISPOT, Western blotting, Immunofluoresence, Flow cytometry, Immunoelectron microscopy, RIST, RAST, MLR (d).To cover all techniques used in immunologica assays with diagrams and examples (d). didactic, teacher seminar, group discussion (d). 5 hours
3. (a). Microflora of human body (a).Reproduce and explain microflora of Skin, throat, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract. (a). to cover in detail microflora of Skin, throat, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract. (a). didactic, student interactive session, student seminar (a). 5 hours
(b). Host pathogen interaction (b).Enumerate definitions of invasion, pathogen, parasite, pathogenicity, toxigenicity, virulence, carriers and their types, nosocomial infections, opportunistic infections, septicemia, septic shock, transmission and spread of infection (b). To cover Definitions of invasion, pathogen, parasite, pathogenicity, toxigenicity, virulence, carriers and their types, nosocomial infections, opportunistic infections, septicemia, septic shock, transmission and spread of infection in detail (b). didactic, student interactive session, problem based learning (b). 5 hours
(c). Sample processing (c).Demonstrate concepts of collection, transport and culturing of clinical samples (c).To cover Collection, transport and culturing of clinical samples (c). didactic, group discussion (c). 4 hours
(d). Diagnostic tools, antimicrobial agents (d)Demonstrate principles of different diagnostic tests (ELISA, Immunofluorescence, Agglutination based tests, Complement fixation, PCR, DNA probes).
Mechanism of action of important chemotherapeutic agents. Principles of drug
resistance in bacteria.
(d). To cover principles of different diagnostic tests (ELISA, Immunofluorescence, Agglutination based tests, Complement fixation, PCR, DNA probes).
Mechanism of action of important chemotherapeutic agents. Principles of drug
resistance in bacteria
(d). didactic, student interactive session, student seminar (d). 6 hours
4. (a). Bacterial
Diseases
(a).Enumerate in detail: Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae, Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae, Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria
gonorrhoeae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum
(a). To cover Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae, Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae, Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria
gonorrhoeae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum 
(a). didactic, student interactive session, group discussion

 

(a). 7 hours
(b). Protozoan diseases (b)Enumerate in detail Malaria, Kala-azar, and Toxoplasmosis (b).To cover Malaria, Kala-azar, and Toxoplasmosis (b). group discussion, teacher seminar (b). 3 hours
(c).Viral diseases (c).Reproduce in detail Polio, Chicken pox, Herpes, Hepatitis, Rabies, Influenza with brief description of bird and swine flu, Dengue, AIDS, Viral cancers. An overview of emerging viral diseases: Japanese Encephalitis, Ebola, Marburg, SARS, Hanta, Nipah, Chandipura, Chikungunya. (c).To cover Polio, Chicken pox, Herpes, Hepatitis, Rabies, Influenza with brief description of bird and swine flu, Dengue, AIDS, Viral cancers. An overview of emerging viral diseases: Japanese Encephalitis, Ebola, Marburg, SARS, Hanta, Nipah, Chandipura, Chikungunya with references (c). group discussion, didactic, student seminar (c).7 hours
(d).Fungal diseases (d).Demonstrate different types of mycoses with particular reference to Dermatomycoses and Opportunistic mycoses (d). To cover Different types of mycoses with particular reference to Dermatomycoses and Opportunistic mycoses in detail (d). didactic, student interactive session (d).3 hours

Paper 2: Food, Dairy and Industrial Microbiology
Time: 80 hours 

S. no
(Theory 2)
Topic Learning objective(At the end of the session student should be able to) Teaching guidelines Methodology Time
1 (a). Food as a substrate

 

 

 

(b). food preservation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c ). Microbial spoilage

 

 

 

(d). fermented foods

(a). Reproduce in detail Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect growth and survival of microbes in foods, natural flora

(b).Enumerate Principles, physical methods of food preservation: temperature (low, high, canning, drying), irradiation, hydrostatic pressure, high voltage pulse, microwave processing
and aseptic packaging, chemical methods of food preservation: salt, sugar, organic acids, SO2, nitrite and nitrates, ethylene oxide, antibiotics and bacteriocins

 

(c).Demonstrate Principles, Spoilage of vegetables, fruits, meat, eggs, milk and butter, bread, canned Foods.

 

(d).Enumerate concepts of Principles, physical methods of food preservation: temperature (low, high, canning, drying), irradiation, hydrostatic pressure, high voltage pulse, microwave processing and aseptic packaging, chemical methods of food preservation: salt, sugar, organic acids, SO2, nitrite and nitrates, ethylene oxide, antibiotics and bacteriocins.

(a).To cover Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect growth and survival of microbes in foods, natural flora in detail

(b). To cover Principles, physical methods of food preservation: temperature (low, high, canning, drying), irradiation, hydrostatic pressure, high voltage pulse, microwave processing
and aseptic packaging, chemical methods of food preservation: salt, sugar, organic acids, SO2, nitrite and nitrates, ethylene oxide, antibiotics and bacteriocins in detail

(c).To cover Principles, Spoilage of vegetables, fruits, meat, eggs, milk and butter, bread, canned Foods in detail manner

(d).To cover Principles, physical methods of food preservation: temperature (low, high, canning, drying), irradiation, hydrostatic pressure, high voltage pulse, microwave processing and aseptic packaging, chemical methods of food preservation: salt, sugar, organic acids, SO2, nitrite and nitrates, ethylene oxide, antibiotics and bacteriocins.

(a) didactic, problem based learning

 

 

(b). group discussion, student seminar, didactic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c). didactic, student interactive session

 

 

(d). didactic, group discussion, student seminar

(a). 3 hours

 

 

 

(b). 7 hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c).3 hours

 

 

 

(d). 7 hours

2 (a). Food borne diseases

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b). Food sanitation and water potability

(a).Enumerate Food intoxications: Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum and mycotoxins; Food infections: Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni

 

(b).Demonstrate concepts of Treatment and safety of drinking (potable) water, methods to detect potability of water samples:  standard qualitative procedure: presumptive test/MPN test, confirmed and completed tests for faecal coliforms ; Membrane filter technique and;  Presence/absence tests in detail

 

(a).To cover Food intoxications: Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum and mycotoxins; Food infections: Bacillus cereus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni

 

(b).To cover Treatment and safety of drinking (potable) water, methods to detect potability of water samples:  standard qualitative procedure: presumptive test/MPN test, confirmed and completed tests for faecal coliforms;  Membrane filter technique and ; Presence/absence tests

 

(a). student seminar, group discussion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b) didactic, student interactive session

(a). 10 hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b). 10 hours

3 (a). Introduction, fermentation and fermentors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b). Overview of industrial fermentation- measurement of parameters, isolation of strains, media and ingredients

(a). Enumerate concepts- Brief history and developments in industrial microbiology. Solid-state and liquid-state (stationary and submerged) fermentations; Batch, fedbatch and continuous fermentations. Components of a typical bioreactor, types of bioreactors-Laboratory, pilot- scale and production fermenters; constantly stirred tank fermenter, tower fermenter, fixed bed and fluidized bed bioreactors and air-lift fermenter.

(b).Demonstrate pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, foaming and aeration. Primary and secondary screening, strain development, preservation and maintenance of industrial strains. Crude and synthetic media; molasses, corn-steep liquor, sulphite waste liquor, whey and yeast extract.

 

(a). To cover Brief history and developments in industrial microbiology. Solid-state and liquid-state (stationary and submerged) fermentations; Batch, fedbatch and continuous fermentations. Components of a typical bioreactor, types of bioreactors-Laboratory, pilot- scale and production fermenters; constantly stirred tank fermenter, tower fermenter, fixed bed and fluidized bed bioreactors and air-lift fermenter.

 

(b).To cover and discuss – pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, foaming and aeration. Primary and secondary screening, strain development, preservation and maintenance of industrial strains. Crude and synthetic media; molasses, corn-steep liquor, sulphite waste liquor, whey and yeast extract.

 

(a). didactic, student seminar, group discussion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b) didactic, problem based learning, group discussion

(a). 10 hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b). 10 hours

4 (a). Downstream processing

 

 

 

(b). Microbial production of industrial products

(a).Enumerate Filtration, centrifugation, cell disruption, solvent extraction, precipitation and ultrafiltration, lyophilization, spray drying

(b).Reproduce and explain citric acid, ethanol, penicillin, glutamic acid, riboflavin, enzymes (amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, glucose isomerase, glucose oxidase), wine, beer, bioinsecticides (Bt) and Steroid transformations

(a).To cover Filtration, centrifugation, cell disruption, solvent extraction, precipitation and ultrafiltration, lyophilization, spray drying

(b).To cover Citric acid, ethanol, penicillin, glutamic acid, riboflavin, enzymes (amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, glucose isomerase, glucose oxidase), wine, beer, bioinsecticides (Bt) and Steroid transformations in detail

(a). didactic, student interactive session, problem based learning

 

(b) didactic, group discussion, student seminar

(a). 10 hours

 

 

 

 

(b).10 hours

Paper 3: Recombinant DNA Technology and Biotechnology
Time: 80 hours

S. no
(Theory 3)
Topic Learning objective(At the end of the session student should be able to) Teaching guidelines Methodology Time
1 (a). Introduction to biotechnology

 

 

(b). Basic DNA cloning

(a). Enumerate milestones in genetic engineering and biotechnology

 

(b).Explain Simple cloning of DNA fragments, Vectors: Definition and properties. E. coli expression vectors-lac, tac and T7 promoter based vectors. Yeast expression vectors – pET yeast vectors, YIp, YEp and YCp vectors. Baculovirus based vectors. Ti based vectors (Binary and Cointegrated vectors) and cloning using linkers and adaptors. Transformation of DNA by chemical method and electroporation in detail

(a). To cover milestones in genetic engineering and biotechnology in detail

 

(b).To cover Simple cloning of DNA fragments, Vectors: Definition and properties. E. coli expression vectors-lac, tac and T7 promoter based vectors. Yeast expression vectors – pET yeast vectors, YIp, YEp and YCp vectors. Baculovirus based vectors. Ti based vectors (Binary and Cointegrated vectors) and cloning using linkers and adaptors. Transformation of DNA by chemical method and electroporation

(a). didactic, student interactive session, student seminar

 

(b). didactic, teacher seminar, group discussion

(a). 7 hours

 

 

(b). 13 hours

2 (a). Tools of recombinant DNA technology- Hosts

 

 

 

 

 

(b). Tools of recombinant DNA technology- enzymes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c). Vectors

(a).Demonstrate in detail Agrobacterium-mediated delivery E. coli strains; Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris); Fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus); Mammalian cell lines – names and genotypes.

 

 

(b).Reproduce in detail – Restriction modification systems: Types I, II and III. Mode of action, nomenclature. Application of Type II restriction enzymes in genetic engineering. DNA modifying enzymes and their applications: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, kinases and phosphatases, DNA ligases and DNA polymerases, reverse transcriptases, bacteriophage RNA polymerases, exonuclease III, BAL31, mung bean nuclease, S1 nuclease

 

(c).Enumerate Cloning Vectors- Definition and Properties. Plasmid vectors-pBR and pUC series, Bacteriophage lambda and M13 based vectors. Cosmids. Shuttle vectors. BACs, YACs, MACs. Mammalian Expression Vectors- SV40, Vaccinia, Retroviral promoter based vectors.

(a). To cover concepts- Agrobacterium-mediated delivery E. coli strains; Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris); Fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus); Mammalian cell lines – names and genotypes.

 

 

(b).To cover Restriction modification systems: Types I, II and III. Mode of action, nomenclature. Application of Type II restriction enzymes in genetic engineering. DNA modifying enzymes and their applications: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, kinases and phosphatases, DNA ligases and DNA polymerases, reverse transcriptases, bacteriophage RNA polymerases, exonuclease III, BAL31, mung bean nuclease, S1 nuclease

 

(c).To cover concepts- Cloning Vectors- Definition and Properties. Plasmid vectors-pBR and pUC series, Bacteriophage lambda and M13 based vectors. Cosmids. Shuttle vectors. BACs, YACs, MACs. Mammalian Expression Vectors- SV40, Vaccinia, Retroviral promoter based vectors.

(c). To cover Cloning Vectors- Definition and Properties. Plasmid vectors-pBR and pUC series, Bacteriophage lambda and M13 based vectors. Cosmids. Shuttle vectors. BACs, YACs, MACs. Mammalian Expression Vectors- SV40, Vaccinia, Retroviral promoter based vectors.

(a). didactic, student interactive session, group discussion

 

 

 

 

 

(b). didactic, problem based learning

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c). Teachers seminar, didactic, student interactive session

(a). 6 hours

 

 

 

 

 

(b).7 hours

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c).7 hours

3 (a). Gene delivery

 

 

(b). Amplification of nucleic acids

 

 

(c). Analytical methods

 

 

 

 

(d). DNA typing

(a). Demonstrate Microinjection, biolistic method (gene gun), liposome and viral-mediated delivery, Agrobacterium-mediated delivery in detail

(b).Reproduce in detail Polymerase chain reaction – enzymes used, primer design. Cloning PCR products. RT-PCR and principles of real time PCR. Ligation chain reaction

(c).Enumerate Agarose gel electrophoresis, Southern – and Northern – blotting techniques, dot blot and colony hybridizations. Chromosome walking and jumping. DNA fingerprinting by RFLP and RAPD. Gel retardation assays in detail

(d).Enumerate DNA footprinting by DNase I, DNA microarray analysis. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Phage display with diagrams

(a).To cover Microinjection, biolistic method (gene gun), liposome and viral-mediated delivery, Agrobacterium-mediated delivery

(b)To cover Polymerase chain reaction – enzymes used, primer design. Cloning PCR products. RT-PCR and principles of real time PCR. Ligation chain reaction in detail

(c).To cover Agarose gel electrophoresis, Southern – and Northern – blotting techniques, dot blot and colony hybridizations. Chromosome walking and jumping. DNA fingerprinting by RFLP and RAPD. Gel retardation assays

(d).To discuss concepts in – DNA footprinting by DNase I, DNA microarray analysis. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Phage display with diagrams

(a). didactic, student interactive session

 

(b). didactic, teachers seminar, group discussion

 

 

(c). didactic, student interactive session, problem based learning

 

 

 

 

(d). Oral explanation with power point presentation, didactic, group discussion

(a).5 hours

 

 

(b).5 hours

 

 

(c).5 hours

 

 

 

 

 

(d).5 hours

4 (a). Construction of genomic libraries

 

 

(b). DNA sequencing

 

(c). Product of DNA technology

(a). Demonstrate in detail- Genomic and cDNA libraries: Preparation and uses. Screening of libraries by colony hybridization and colony PCR

(b).Enumerate Maxam-Gilbert’s and Sanger’s method. Automated sequencing

(c).Enumerate Human genome sequencing project. Human protein replacements-insulin, hGH and Factor VIII. Human therapies – tPA, interferon, antisense molecules. Bt transgenics-rice, cotton, brinjal

(a).To cover Genomic and cDNA libraries: Preparation and uses. Screening of libraries by colony hybridization and colony PCR along with diagrams

(b)To cover Maxam-Gilbert’s and Sanger’s method. Automated sequencing in detail

(c).To cover Human genome sequencing project. Human protein replacements-insulin, hGH and Factor VIII. Human therapies – tPA, interferon, antisense molecules. Bt transgenics-rice, cotton, brinjal in detail

(a). didactic, student interactive session

 

(b). didactic, student seminar, group discussion

 

(c). didactic, student interactive session, problem based learning

(a).7 hours

 

(b). 6 hours

 

 

(c).7 hours

SGTUNIVERSITY
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